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Annie Kennedy Bidwell: An Intimate History by Lois H. McDonald
Historical biography of one of the founders of nineteenth- century American California.

Introduction to Annie Kennedy Bidwell: An Intimate History

About the author, Lois McDonald

Index to Annie Kennedy Bidwell: An Intimate History

 

Introduction to Annie Kennedy Bidwell: An Intimate History

California was long a land of mythical enchantment, or of fearful dangers, depending on the mind-set of those who visualized it from afar—be they geographers, adventurers or dreamers. Sons and husbands departed to see for themselves whether promises hinted at by that golden island on the Pacific might be fulfilled. Annie Kennedy’s grandfather, upon being invited in 1868 to her wedding wrote, "California! In my boyhood almost ‘terra incognita.’"

Annie Ellicott Kennedy became engaged to marry a Union general—the California pioneer and congressman, John Bidwell. He would take her west to Rancho Chico, away from the high society Washington, D.C., home of her parents. Though fearful of the West’s savage Indians, Annie’s parents nevertheless recognized that the marriage of their daughter to this man of presumed enormous wealth and high rank in California politics could scarcely be forbidden.

Some commentators still assume Annie’s chief accomplishment was to bring social polish to Chico, the crude new town in Northern California founded by her husband. Not so, for though the Bidwells entertained many guests and were lavish in both the meals and entertainment provided to visitors to their mansion, Annie’s focus came to be the causes that she welcomed as God’s plan for her life. Lucky she was that her ambitions so neatly meshed with those of a lenient and loving husband. The two shared everything of themselves after meeting, both of their earlier lives and the frustrations and successes of their life together.

The year following her marriage to Bidwell, Annie traveled by herself on the newly opened transcontinental railway to visit her family. A year later Chico was hooked by rail to San Francisco, a frequent destination of the Bidwells. She traveled from coast to coast many times. She learned to combine her social obligations with participation at both state and national Indian associations, and attendance at Women’s Christian Temperance Union conventions across the country.

Bidwell’s dedication to education reminds one of Jane Stanford, Annie’s contemporary who put so much of both her wealth and her ideas into forming a university. With the Bidwells, it was Chico Normal School built on land they donated, started with their suggestions for curriculum, and over a century later became a state university. Another nineteenth century supporter of education, Phoebe Apperson Hearst, was drawn to Annie with their similarity of ideas and willingness to work for them.

Annie began her role as educator with the Mechoopda Indians of Bidwell Rancheria, driven by both the need to bring these "savages" to Christ and to help prepare them to survive in the white man’s world.

Prohibition and eradication of alcohol produced for human consumption became perhaps the most dedicated endeavor of the many that obsessed this little woman. She became a good friend of Susan B. Anthony and a great admirer and correspondent of Frances Willard. Annie worked tirelessly to achieve women’s suffrage and the multifaceted program of the WCTU.

Annie went on camping trips. She toured Europe. She started businesses, supported friends and relatives in life and death, and she made plans for development and parks in Chico.

Annie E. K. Bidwell’s greatest achievement was providing leadership in the causes she prayed ceaselessly to win others to, and in so doing she gave Chico and all of California a female model of whom to be proud.

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About the author

Lois Halliday McDonald is a native of Illinois, growing up on a farm not far from the confluence of the Illinois, Mississippi and Missouri rivers. She graduated from Illinois State University, majoring in speech arts and English.

Teaching, homemaking, and working as a Butte County, California, social worker occupied her first thirty years after college, but then she met Clio on a blind date (her mother coaxed Lois into accompanying her back to New England to look for family beginnings!) and has never since left that muse’s side. To cement the union she took a master’s degree in history from California State University, Chico, in 1976.

Lois McDonald has three children and two stepchildren, adults, all California residents. (One son recently reminded her to include among her activities that of puppet master, one of her hobbies he and his friends enjoyed mightily as a boy.)

For fifteen years Lois served as a director of the Paradise Performing Arts Center. Other board memberships include the Association for Northern California Records and Research, Bidwell Mansion Cooperative Association, the Butte County Branch of the League of American Pen Women and the Paradise Branch, American Association of University Women.

Her previous books include The Fur Trade Letters of Francis Ermatinger, Elsie Hamburger: I Never Look Back, and This Paradise We Call Home. She edited and contributed to an anthology published by the National League of American Pen Women, Ripples Along Chico Creek, and edited other Pen Women publications. She has edited both a quarterly, The California Historian, and the local history semiannual journal, Tales of the Paradise Ridge, writing many articles for the latter. For over six years she contributed a weekly history column to the Paradise Post.

On October 5, 2005, Lois Halliday McDonald died of cancer. There was no memorial as she requested, although scores of friends and relatives gathered at the Paradise Performing Arts Center to relate their experiences about  the popular historian and community leader.

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Index to Annie Kennedy Bidwell: An Intimate History

A. K. Bidwell Orchards Company 316, 329

Adams, Prof. 378

Agnew, Rev. 120, 132

Alexander, Charles O. 133, 211, 255, 341

death of 341

Alexander, Douglas 296, 342, 343, 374

son of Minnie and Charles O. Alexander 341

Alexander, Gertrude 366, 372

medical care paid by Annie 366

wife of William Morrison Alexander 286

Alexander, Harriett 296, 298, 341, 342, 343, 346, 374

daughter of Minnie and Charles O. Alexander 341

goes to Europe with Annie and others 344

marriage to Irvin Clough 346, 372

Alexander, Minnie (Carroll) 211, 255, 296, 298, 325, 343

Alexander, Sallie (Kennedy) 208, 216, 237, 256, 295, 340

death of 347, 348, 365

sued by relatives 284, 285

Alexander, Thomson "Tom" H. 159, 177, 208, 256, 285, 295, 322, 340, 348

Alexander, William and Gertrude 365

Alexander, William Morrison 217, 233, 237, 256, 286, 295, 296, 320, 335, 340, 356

adopted by Thomson H. and Sallie K. Alexander 217

Gertrude Bruner, wife of 340

son of Joseph M. Morrison 217

Alissa (Indian) 149

Allegheny College 20, 21, 145

Amanda 323, 325

American Party 190

Election Day fiasco 190

Ames, Rev. 97

Annie K. Bidwell WCTU Temple 299, 304

Annual Teachers’ Institutes 361

Anthony, Mary 234

Anthony, Susan B. 229, 231, 310, 320, 321, 397

Anti-Saloon League 311

Apperson, Phoebe 358. See also Hearst, Phoebe (Apperson)

Aranda, Genevieve 355

Arents, directors at Greenville Indian School 246

Armory Hall 257

Armstrong, Col. 347

Arnold, Mrs. 307

Ashe, S. A. 33, 386

Aspinwall, Panama 47

Aurora Mine 179, 184, 394

Azbill [Asbill], Henry 397, 404, 405, 406

Azbill [Asbill], Mary 335, 405

wife of George Clements 398

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Bader Hall 305

Bailey, Major A. M. 101, 139, 292, 367

death of 125, 150

takes over as ranch manager 99

Bain, Bud 333

Baldwin, Clara (cousin of Annie) 174

Baldwin, Madge (cousin of Annie) 172, 181

Baldwin, Madge and Frankie 172

Bancroft, H. H. 194

Band of Good Hope 163

Barber, O. C., president of Diamond Match 305

Barber, suburb of Chico 295, 342

Barham, Mr. 225

Bates, Craig D., curator of ethnology at Yosemite 387, 390, 396, 397, 398, 399, 404, 406

Baumgarner, Elsie (Bidwell) 376

Bay, Judge Harmon 227

Baz, Sara Stanley 392

Beecher, Rev. Henry Ward 109, 229

Beers, Alice 206

benevolent aid society 107

Benjamin, Dr. Marcus, Kennedy family friend 292

Bidwell, Abraham 169, 366

Bidwell, Abram 91, 101, 132

general manager of ranch operations 91

Bidwell, America

wife of Thomas Bidwell 50

Bidwell, Annie Ellicott (Kennedy)

asked to pray 207

attacks of nervous headaches 96

busy with WCTU activities 204

childhood memories 13

comforter and nursemaid 24, 28, 32, 54, 201, 209, 218, 227, 236, 237, 340

converted to Presbyterianism 16, 27, 33, 301

correcting husband’s grammar 266

cross country trips 62, 70, 89, 93, 99, 161, 165, 170, 172, 187, 189, 208, 236, 258, 340

daughter of Kennedy, Joseph C. G. and Catherine 25

death of 318, 378, 380

delicate constitution 43

desire to adopt 218, 244

emotional bond with Willie 340

first long separation from John 69, 77, 261, 264

health retreat for 179, 184

introduction to rancheria 57

John Muir, strong friendship with 130

lameness of arm 211, 213, 214, 281, 338, 347, 365

licensed to preach 151

medical treatment 97

mumps 18, 337

nerves 56, 92

offices and duties for the year 181

organizes a Presbyterian church 39, 54

organizes WCTU branches 163, 307

pastor to Bidwell Rancheria Indians 182, 303, 346, 357

patron saint 221

president of WCTU Chico branch 307

removal of city plaza trees opposed 297, 377

sales and gifts of real estate 315, 319, 320, 321, 322, 370

seriously ill 55, 81, 165, 337, 338

shares home with Harriet Alexander 298

sued by relatives 284

travelling in Europe, 1910 308, 309, 341, 345, 347

tuberculosis 183, 187, 189, 279

voice problem 182, 195, 307, 345, 349, 365

will 121, 216, 353, 354, 355, 366, 369, 371

Women’s Congress advisory council member 232

Bidwell Band Association, Inc. 355

member’s names receiving shares or titles of ranch 405

Bidwell Bar, California 63, 277

Bidwell cannery accident 183

Bidwell, Clarissa 169

Bidwell, Daniel 91, 169, 296, 376, 387

half brother of John Bidwell 50

Bidwell, Emroy "Emma" 387

daughter of Daniel 53

education funded by John Bidwell 387

Bidwell, General John 31. See also Bidwell, John

appointed brigadier general 34, 64

very wealthy man 41, 53

Bidwell, John 26, 30, 37, 250

Abraham and Clarissa parents of 169

asks Kennedy’s permission to propose 40

bilious attack 54, 201, 214, 395

bribe charge 106

candidate for California governor 1867 40, 55, 214

candidate for California governor 1890 190

children of 390

confessions 37, 38, 103, 111, 224, 262, 282, 357

death of 254, 281

eightieth birthday 252

elected to 39th Congress, 1866-67 65

elected to Congress, 1865-66, 1866-67 35

fathers Nupani’s son 242, 397

Indian girl, "wife" of 112, 397

"Juan Bidwell" 106

lumbago 182, 184, 205, 208, 209, 235, 249

name chisled in memorial marker 292

Prohibition Party U.S. presidental candidate 183, 193, 202, 214, 309

surveys roadway 251

U.S. congressman 35

wills 259, 366, 369

Bidwell, Lily 50, 387

daughter of Thomas and America Bidwell 50

education funded by John Bidwell 387

Bidwell, Major John 34

Bidwell Mansion 44, 51, 110, 211, 359, 382

addition of new kitchen 297

Annie’s first years of residence 320

Cleaveland, H. W., architect of 65

concrete vault 280

deeded to Presbyterian College Board 321, 373

map of surroundings 354

purchase by State of California 373

redecoration of downstairs 181

sensitive matter of sharing with Reeds 42, 376

servants

Alice Beers 206

Amanda 353

Ann and Annette quarrel 99

Bessie 90

Blake, Florence 160, 206, 254

Charlie Cunningham, houseman 118

Chinese kitchen helper 73

female Irish immigrants 51

feud 73, 90

Hannah 51, 75, 90

Irish girls 52, 73, 206, 365, 407

John Bidwell’s handling of women servants 52

Jones, Susan 206

Kate 51

Lafonso, Genevieve 353

Lulu the maid and cook 182, 252

Mary 90, 269

Nopanny 58

Peter, the houseboy 159, 184

Steward, Susan 51

wars in the kitchen 161

Wong 73

used for approved meetings 166, 298, 359

Bidwell Mansion Association 397

Bidwell Mansion Historic State Park 44, 260, 292

Bidwell, Mary. See Reed, Mary (Bidwell): daughter of Daniel Bidwell

Bidwell Memorial Presbyterian Church 319

dedication of 345

Bidwell National Park, proposed name 293

Bidwell Orchard Company 350

Bidwell Park, city of Chico 233, 320, 376, 407

Bidwell Picnic Grove 302

Bidwell Rancheria 290, 323

Bidwell Sacramento River Park 319

Bidwell School on Nord Avenue 304, 317

Bidwell, Thomas [brother of John Bidwell] 50

Bidwell’s cemetery plot 292, 308, 367

Big Meadows, California 60, 89, 125, 237, 251, 294, 297, 362

Biggs, California 163, 309

Black Butte Lake, California 96, 129

Black Point, California 135

Blake, Florence 160, 185, 206, 254, 365

Blake, Mrs.

friend of Annie 268

Blinn, Mrs. Nellie 231

Block, Sam 236

Blood, Miss Maud, art studio 158

Board of Trade Roads Commission 251

Bohlander, Ida Florence 254

Bond, Lon 288

Booth, Newton 105

Brehm, Marie 310

Brigham, Gladys 343

British Isles 171

Broadwater, Mr. 76

brothel 115, 233, 304, 305

Brown, C. H. of Gridley 311

Brown, M. T. 181

Brown, Mr., Queen Victoria’s stableman 261

Brown, Mrs. 185

Browne, Rev. R. A. M. 310, 314, 349

arrested on morals charge 310

Broyles, Mrs. 153

Bruner, Gertrude 340

Brydon, Carrie 305

Buchanan, President James 18, 23

Buena Vista Springs 218

Bumpass area, Lassen Park 96

Bunnell family 96

burning, the (Indian) 149, 330, 356

Burr, Mrs. Breshaw 17, 26, 32, 135

Butler, Velma 407

Butt Creek, California 297

Butte County Knights Templar lodges 163

Butte County Railroad 305

Butte County Record 91

Butte Creek, California 136

Butte Meadows, California 249

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Cadwalder, General 74

Calaveras Big Trees Park, California 79, 139

California and Oregon Railroad 74

California Club 345

California Home Guards 64

California Indian Association 353, 371

California Prohibition Party 348

California State Fair 139

California State Prohibition Party convention 183

California Teachers Association

Bidwells members of 361

Calistoga, California 89

Call 232, 352

Camp Brightness 96

Camp Politeness 96

Camp Repose 96

Camp Satisfaction 96

Camper and Costar realty 188

Camper, Maud B. 332, 404

camping

August 6, 1873 96

high meadows, July 1890 189

June 1873 96

Robin’s Nest with Sallie 294

September 1877 128

Carroll family 133, 139, 341

Carroll, Minnie 159, 169, 341

Carse, Mrs. 212

Central Pacific Railroad 70, 93

monopoly on rates 105

Century Magazine 194

Chalmers, Watson 133

Cheney, Dr. 137

Cherokee Hotel 61

cherries, Rancho Chico 256, 376, 377

Chicago, Illinois 13, 208, 313

Chico and Humboldt Road 362

Chico Armory 190

Chico Board of Trade 249

Chico, California

Annie’s new life in 54

laid out in 1860 64

Chico Cemetery 120, 125, 369

Bidwell family and friends section 120, 367, 368, 369

burials paid by Annie 367

Chico Chronicle-Record 203

Chico Creek, California 63, 240, 272, 276, 289, 320

Chico Depot 201

Chico Enterprise 219, 363

Chico Grange, Patrons of Husbandry 105

Chico High School 298, 316, 342

Chico Presbyterian Church 78, 82, 253, 328

building on sanctuary 83

Chico Public Library 306

Chico Public School Trustees 154

Chico Record 348

Chico Relief Society 181

Chico State Teachers College

Charles M. Osenbaugh, president 373

Chico Vecino subdivision 181, 188, 304, 317

Children’s Playground 320, 407

China Camp in Vina, California 329

Chinese

brickyards 182

conflict 124, 139

flooded out 133

gifts to Annie and Catherine 167

laborers 167

parade 246

Church, Mrs. Caroline 184, 394

Cinder Cone, California 96, 129

city plaza 376, 407

Clark, Mayor 377

Clear Creek, California 136

Cleaveland, H. W. 65, 81, 86, 88, 297

seen with married woman 86

Clements, Clara 212, 242, 243

Bessie, possible daughter of 244

remarries to James Nuchols 333

Clements, George 103, 148, 154, 212, 220, 224, 225, 233, 241, 242, 333, 390

acquitted by jury 245

arrested 242, 243, 244

Clara, wife of 212

new wife "Maud" 248, 399

Clements, Lily 240, 241, 242, 244, 296, 323, 326, 334, 360

marries James Nucholls 335, 336

Clements, Luther 220, 242, 244, 326, 351, 355, 398

Clough, F. M. 305, 342

Frank, son of 403

Clough, Harriett (Alexander) 372

Clough, Irvin 342, 343, 346, 372

Collins, Lilly (Bidwell) 203, 259

Collins, Mr. 77

Coloma, California 277

Colorado Springs, Colorado 187

Colusa, California 331

Congregational Church’s Mission Branch 361

Conneaut Lake, Pennsylvania 13, 14

Conway, Eamyo 211, 240

Conway family, Indian 331

Conway, Isaiah 220, 355

Conway, William 219, 220, 338, 350

Cooley, Maria Louise 126, 367

Helen and Lucy, daughters of 126

Cooper, Maggie 184

Cooper, Mary 172

Cooper, Molly 181, 183, 395

correspondence during separations 279

Cottonwood, California 149

Craighead, Fannie 60, 77, 199

marries Mr. Huidekoper 199

Craighead, William and Julia Reynolds 199

Craighead, Fannie, daughter of 199

Crawford County 14

Crawford Weekly Messenger 21

Crew, Emma 126, 254

Crew, Harry 291

Crosette, George 91

Crosette, Isabel Tilden 152

Cuiverez, J. 312

Cunningham, Charley [Charlie] 118, 241, 395

Cussick, B. 317, 318

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Dailey, John 173, 174

Dailey, Ruby 364, 380

Daughters of the American Revolution 19, 216, 385

Davidson, Emma (Wayland) 269

Dear General 38

Diamond Match’s mill 295, 304, 342

Dickey, William 106

Diggers 214

Dixon, Miss 45

Dixon, Mrs. 169

Dixon, Senator 45

Doers 207

Dogtown, California 136

Dolly Varden Party 105

Donahue, Mrs. 148

Dooley’s 193

Dorr, Sarah

president of Calif. state WCTU 312, 339

Durham, California 149

Durham, W. W. 388

Durkee, Frank Bidwell 407

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Earll, Mrs. 392

Eastham, Vonnie 406

Edward Farwell Rancho 64, 111

Elko, Nevada 70, 132

Ellicott, Andrew 20

Kennedy, Jane Judith (Ellicott), daughter of 20

Ellicott, Jane Judith 20

Ellicott, Maggie 93. See also Woodhull, Maggie (Ellicott)

Ellicott, Major Andrew 216, 385

Ellicott property in Fountainville, Maryland 175, 188, 196

Ellicott, Sallie 16

Ellis, Rev. 132, 161

Emerson Institute 189

English, Ruby Dailey [Daily] 273, 374, 407

Enloe Hospital 368

Enterprise 307

entertainment 110, 139, 157, 159, 162, 172, 271, 374

Washington social set 17, 23, 59, 75, 90, 142

Evans, Miss 60

Examiner 232

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Facts & Figures 307

expenses paid by Annie 307

Fairbairn, Fred 55

Fairbairn, Rev. Alex 55, 78, 82, 85, 95

Fred, son of Rev. A. and Mrs. Fairbairn 55

Fanianis 251

Fannie Reynolds 45

Faulkner, Charles 91, 137

Faulkner, Judge 378

Federation of Women’s Clubs 212

Ferrall, Rhoda 214

Ferrer, Dr. 183

Fifth Street Presbyterian Church 16, 36

Fillmore, President Millard 18, 23, 34

Fimple, Mrs. 307

fishing 14, 272

floods of 1889 188

Florence, Miss Ida 153, 154, 165, 182, 219

flourmill 75, 166

Foley

embezzlement suspect 101

Forest Ranch, California 249, 250

forestry station

land deeded by Annie 188

Fountainville property 175, 179, 285

Fourteen Mile House 250

Lucas’ barn 250

Franklin, Pennsylvania 22

French, Artie 236

French, Henry 237

frogs on Chico Creek 56

Fuller, America (Bidwell) 259

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Gage, David 388

Gage, Helen Sommer 95, 359, 406

Gage, Mrs. David 61

Gage, Mrs. Sybil 388

Gatchell, Dr. Ella 227, 228, 236, 254, 255, 256, 336, 372, 380

Florence, daughter of 236

Geer, Mrs. 126

Geography of Astronomy 79, 389

Georgetown Cemetery 198

German picnic 302, 379

German Saving Bank 168

Gerolt, Bertha 46

Gerolt, Dorothea 46

Gerolt, Prussian ambassador 45

Gibbs, Augusta 94, 134, 169, 193, 294, 345

Gibbs, Mr. and Mrs. George W. 92, 269

Gilbert, Susan 337

wife of Jesse Slack 337

Gillis, Michael 386, 389

Glass, Louis 139, 169

Glen Oaks Cottages 185

Glenn County, California 166

Glenn, Dr. and Mrs. Hugh James 94

Goldsmith, Barbara 397

Good Roads Association 251

Graham, Rev. 161, 189, 312

alienates John Bidwell 192, 193, 312

announces resignation 253

attacks Annie and activities 191, 231, 312

Grant, General Ulysses S. 36, 45, 75, 93, 139

Gray, Dr. Asa 128, 158

Gray, Fred. H., Oroville’s hardware pioneer 312

Gray, George Moses 158

Gray, Mrs. 128

Great Western Power Company 296

Green, General W. S. 257

Green, Mrs. 169

Greenville, California 249

Greenville Government Indian School 246, 328

Greenwood, Grace 91

Gridley, California 163

Gross, Mrs. 234

Guill, Mrs. 307

Gurley, Reverend Dr. P. D. 16, 38, 43, 45

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Hailah, Hiram, Indian laborer 294

Hallet and Loy 120

Hammonds, owners of Spreckels Meat Marker

automobile causes runaways 295

Harkness, Dr. 264

Harland, Mabel 214

Harland, Mrs. Hester 214

Hart, Rev. Orlando Elton

death of 368

Haskell Institute 353

Hawaii 59, 94, 99

Haycey, Indian 214

Hayes, Mrs. Rutherford B. 162

Hayes, President Rutherford B. 162

Hearst, George F. 358

Hearst, Phoebe (Apperson) 358, 363, 374

Hearst Ranch, Butte County 359

Helltown, California 136

Helpenstine, Mrs. 307

Hendricks, Mrs. Thomas P. 306, 311

Henry, John 73

Henry, Joseph secretary of the Smithsonian 45, 93

meets John Bidwell 36

Henshaw, Henry Weatherbee 158

Hicks, Rev. 305

Hill, Dorothy J. 228

Hill, Dr., dentist 93

Hilltop Farm, Pennsylvania 22

Hirschfelder, Arthur 236, 319, 374

Hirschfelder, Dr. Joseph 179, 183, 201, 203, 281, 343, 365

payment for services received from Annie 318

Hirschfelder, Mrs. 193

Hobart, Charles Van Duzen 53

Hobart, Emroy "Emma" (Bidwell) 103, 148, 214

wife of Charles Van Duzen Hobart 53

Holmes, Jessie 396, 398

wife of George Clements 398

Hooker Oak 233, 319

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton 128

Hoopes, Chad L. 386

Hopkins, Emily 364

Hotel Ramona 363, 407

Hudsmith, Ben 387

Huidekoper [Huydekoper] family, Arthur 20, 77, 199

Humboldt Road Wagon Road 249, 253, 256, 274

Humbug Valley, California 96

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ice cream 218, 269, 306

Independent Party 105

the "Dolly Varden Party" 105

Indian brass band 219, 221, 319, 339

instruments paid by Annie 319

Indian burial rites 356

Indian chapel 226

destroyed by flames 355

leading services 153, 332, 338

normal school blessing to 220

remodeled 189, 219, 226

Rev. White and Annie baptise fifteen 331

the other Presbyterian church 253

Indian customs 350, 404

Indian dances 112, 113, 149, 325, 330, 356

Indian handiwork 102, 213, 246, 325

Indian Presbyterian Mission School 152

Indian rancheria 57, 357

1912 census 350

list of names 405

alcohol abuse 119, 150, 154

Annie buys piano and pays for voice lessons 319

Annie introduced to 57

Bidwell’s proclamation 155, 170, 397

Christmas celebrations 150, 151, 189, 215, 326

relocated, March 1869 57, 102

sounds from 56

twenty-six acres in trust for Indians 355

Indian school 105, 324

fallen apart 119, 122

first staff of 104

opposition to 105

organizing 147, 148, 225

progressing with paid teachers 153, 165

staff 148, 149, 150, 152, 153

teachers paid by Annie 151, 153

Indian village adjoining mansion 56

Indians, Bidwell Rancheria

working at Robin’s Nest 295

Indians of Chico Rancheria 228

Industrial Mission School 148

Intelligencer 22

Intercollegiate Prohibition Association 309

International Statistical Congress, 1851 23

Ireland 37, 277

Irvin, William 106

Italian ranch families

Fanianis and the Ruffas 251

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J. P. Edwards and Montgomery Investment brokers 322

Jay, Laurinda (Bidwell) 168, 258

sister of John Bidwell 168

Jay, Wesley 168

Jewett, Mrs. Mary 62, 70, 371

John Bidwell and California, Gillis and Magliari 386, 388, 390, 391, 398

John the houseboy

elopement with Leona 236

Johnson, President Andrew 45

impeachment 44

Joint State Normal School Board 182, 377

Jones (African) spy 74

Jones, Callie 392

Jones, Clayborn 32, 46, 52, 206, 387

death of 212, 396

Jones, Susan 206, 387, 396

Jones, William A. 393

Jonesville, California 249

Jordan, David Starr 407

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Kane, Mrs. 92, 169, 269

Kennedy, Andrew 20

Kennedy, Annie Ellicott 26, 30, 48, 49, 277, 374. See also herein Bidwell, Annie Ellicott Kennedy

Annie Ellicott Kennedy

Annie Bidwell pays costs of baby’s delivery 290

daughter of Joe and Winifred Kennedy 290, 367

education fund set up for grandniece 372

birth of 21

Kennedy, Catherine (Morrison) 14, 15, 19, 24, 41, 56, 143

criticism of husband 59

dangers list of worries 95

daughter of Morrison, Joseph and Anne (McMillan) 21

emotional health 15, 30, 80, 84, 180, 238

female problems of aging 167

stressing proper protocol 230

visits Rancho Chico fourteen months 75, 77, 79, 84

visits Rancho Chico seven months 97

visits Rancho Chico with husband 138

will 238, 283, 284

Kennedy, Cora (Wayland) 113, 136, 150, 184, 272, 284, 338, 369, 371, 373, 380, 395

Kennedy, Dr. Samuel 29, 216, 385

Kennedy, Dr. Thomas 20

Kennedy, Eva (Sampson) 236, 254, 284, 291, 295, 307, 338

accompanies Annie to Honolulu 291

Kennedy family conflict, 1901 283

Kennedy, Guy Reynolds 89, 136, 139, 160, 165, 175, 207, 215, 221, 238, 240, 269, 284, 295, 307, 336, 366, 368, 369, 375

buys Annie’s remaining cattle 322

education partly paid by Annie 189

marriage to Eva Sampson 221, 232

named Annie’s representative 322

Kennedy, Helen 31

Kennedy, Jane Julia Ellicott 29

Kennedy, John "Johnny" Reynolds 31, 46, 47, 87, 264, 269, 284, 292, 367, 369

brother of Annie 55

Cora E. P. Wayland, wife of 85, 87

death of 119, 120, 137, 150

lassoing "wild cattle" 59

will 121

with Miss Evans 60

Kennedy, Joseph Calm Griffith 13, 16, 19, 20, 21, 41, 141, 145, 160, 164, 172, 301

Craighead, Lydia L. (Reynolds), stepsister of 20

death of 172, 174, 216, 227

director of U.S. Census 15, 22

Joey and Guy, grandchildren of 165

marriage to Catherine Morrison 21

meets John Bidwell 35

not reappointed as director 61

visits Annie and John in Chico 138

will 175, 239, 284

Kennedy, Joseph "Joey" "Joe" Morrison 24, 28, 76, 138, 160, 173, 177, 196, 238, 285, 290, 295, 296, 301, 322, 369

brother of Annie 28

caddish behavior 60, 180, 195, 199

death of 198, 258

heavy drinking 60, 85, 196

jilts fiancée Fannie Craighead 60

military service of 25

Kennedy, Joseph John "Joey" 113, 165, 284, 367

marries Winifred Moon 290

baby’s expenses paid by Annie 290

daughter namesake of Annie 290

phone bill paid by Annie 291

son of John and Cora Kennedy 113, 136

Kennedy, Sallie 14, 29, 30, 54, 59, 144, 288. See also Alexander, Sallie (Kennedy)

Chico, visits to 86, 88, 125, 129

daughter of Joseph and Catherine Kennedy 29

in love with cousin Joseph M. Morrison 142, 143

father objects to marriage 142, 217

marriage to Thomas H. Alexander 179

Kennedy, Sarah (Ruston) 29

Kennedy, Sarah Jane "Sallie". See Kennedy, Sallie

Keola [Kiala], Mary 213, 240, 325

King, Mr. 225

King, Thomas Starr 293

Knights of Labor 182

Knights Templar 163

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Ladies Relief Society 126

Lafonso, Amanda 112, 246, 324

Bidwells disapprove of divorce 326

death of baby 327

marries Santa Wilson 327

wife of Holai Lafonso 152

Lafonso, Elmer 154, 220, 240, 241, 323, 324, 328, 330, 332, 339, 345, 347, 350, 351, 352, 354, 372, 380, 406

Genevieve, wife of 350, 373

Donna Mae, daughter of 353

Genevieve, daughter of 353

hired to sing 352

Lafonso, Holai 112, 152, 154, 247, 323, 324, 330, 351

Amanda, wife of 154, 323

chief of rancheria 155

death of 154, 329, 335

Lafonso, Luther

enlists in U.S. Army 354

made drunk 241

Lafonso, Maggie Sowilleno 154, 211, 213, 219, 240, 253, 296, 299, 323, 324, 328, 331, 332

daughter of Amanda and Holai Lafonso 152

death of 332

education trust paid by John Bidwell 325

Lake Almanor, California 297

Lake Pontchartrain 166

Lake Tahoe 132

Lassen Peak 96, 128, 293

Lathers family 93

Latour, Ira H. 393

Leavitt, Mary Clements 162, 204, 310

Lee, Miss Jessie 122, 150, 151

Lemm Ranch 124

Letter of Acceptance 203

Lewis, Mr. 329

Lick Trust of San Francisco 168, 258, 315

Liew, Dr. Van, president of the normal school 334, 377, 378

Lincoln, President Abraham 18, 23

Linda, favorite mule 209

Little Brown Church, Magalia 306

Little Brown Church, Stirling City 305

Little White Mother 356

Livingston, Montana 190

Lizzie 148

Longley, Pres 136

Longworth Hotel 202

Los Angeles, California 139, 190, 348

Lott, Judge Charles Fayette 54

Loyal Temperance League (Legion) 211, 309

Luccayan 155

Nopanny daughter of 155

Luckyan, Chief 223, 396

Lucy, Indian girl student 153

Lulu the maid and cook 182, 252

Lusk, Franklin C. 94, 132, 258, 272, 283, 315

Annie takes advice from 322

John Bidwell enraged at 278

omitted liquor clause in Styles’ deed 317

shrewd legal mind 279

thorn in Bidwell’s side 279

Lusk, Mrs. Mary Jane 94

Lyon, Mr., planting expert 279

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Madera, California 139

Magalia, California 184, 305

Magliari, Michael 386, 389

Maidu tribes, 1851 treaty with 324

Mammoth Springs, Montana 190

Mandeville, Mrs. J. C. 61

Manitou Springs, Colorado 187

March, Judge 316

Marguerite Apartments 363

Markham, Henry H. 191

Mary Jewett Fund of the WASCP 371

Marysville, California 54, 71, 162

Mason, Mr. (Negro) 174

Mason, Mr., evangelist 207

Mathewson, Fannie Smith, sister of Eva Kennedy 291

Donald, son of 375, 402

Maud 248, 399

Mazy Way 274

McClellan, Gen. 23

McDonald, Lois H. 386, 429

McDonald, Mr. 159

McEnery, Hugh 306

McKinney and Flannery, legal firm in D.C. 284

McLean, Austin 219

McMillan, Anne 21

McMillan, Lt. William 385

McMillan, Mrs. 103, 148

McRae, Judge 54

Meadville, Pennsylvania 13, 15, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 29, 45, 61, 236

major founders of 199

Mechoopda Association 355, 356

Mechoopda cemetery 355, 356

Mechoopda sweathouse 326, 330

Mechoopda village 381

possible Presbyterian model of Christian devotion 278

Mechoopdas 323, 355, 370

horrible lamentations 57

Mendocino County, California 314

Meriam, Annie (Lund) 366, 377, 378

diary 381, 407

wife of Morrison E. Meriam 366

Meriam, Prof. Morrison E. 366, 377, 379

Meriam, Theodore "Ted" 377, 378

Messinger, Reuben 249, 250, 252, 294, 296, 316, 372, 377

Ruby, daughter of 294

Mexican era 34

Mexican War 34, 36, 63, 195

Mickey, Mrs. 108

Middleton, California

school for Indians 154, 243

Miller, Mrs. George 307

Ministerial Union 207

Mitchell, Joseph Charles 331

marries Maggie Sowillino Lafonso 324, 331

Mitchell, Maggie 335. See also Lafonso, Maggie

burial of 356

Montreal 188

Moon, Winifred, wife of Joseph John Kennedy 290, 367

Morehead, Ardenia 302

Morehead Ranch, Butte County 302

Morgan, General from Rhode Island 279

Morrison, Anne MacMillan 25

grandmother of Annie 25

Morrison, Belle 176, 217

wife of Joseph M. Morrison 217

Morrison, Catherine 19, 80

marriage to Joseph C. G. Kennedy 21

Morrison, Guy, Butte County miner 313

Morrison, Joseph (Catherine’s brother) 138

Morrison, Joseph (Catherine’s father) 21

Morrison, Joseph M. 141, 176, 177, 178

Morrisons 15, 174

Morristown, New Jersey 107

Morrow, Quincy Lee 310

Mosquito Creek, California 179

Mow, Ah 126

Mt. Lassen, California 240

Mt. Shasta, California 128, 139

Muir, John 128, 143, 281, 293, 389

Muir, Mrs. John 131

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National Convention of Sunday Schools 92

National Indian Association 209, 258, 364, 371

National Inquirer 309

National Womens Christian Temperance Union

Annie resigns commission to 191

convention in Chicago 207

Native American customs 57

Native Daughters of California (Golden West) 292, 320

Neubarth, August 396

Neubarth, John 219, 319, 396

New York 171, 313

New York Chatauqua 258

New York Examiner 386

Newton, Isaac 35

Nikirk, Mrs. 307

Nimshew, California 136

Nopanny 58, 103, 112, 123, 148, 151, 222, 223, 243, 325, 327

daughter of Chief Luckyan 223

death of 228

keeps Annie’s keys 222

supporting Indian school, Indian chapel 224

Nord Indians 331

Nordhoff, California 185

normal school 182, 359, 362

Annie deeds part of orchard to 319

grads hosted by Annie 359

laying the cornerstone 182

opening 188

site selected 171, 172

Normal School Christian Men’s Club 299

Normal School Trustees, Los Angeles 212

Northern Crown 314

Nucholls [Nuchols], James 333, 396

Annie orders to leave village 334, 336

marries Janey [Clara] 333

marries Lily Clements after Janey 335

Nucholls children 326, 335

Myrtle 334, 360

Nucholls, Janey

death of 335

Nupani 387, 397. See also Nopanny; Preacher, Mrs. Nopanny

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Oakland, California 254

Occidental Board of the Women’s Foreign Missionary 152, 153

Occidental Hotel 54, 97

Ojai Valley, California 185

Old Adobe Inn 301

"Old Tonoco" 227

Omaha, Nebraska 71

Oregon & California line 93

Oregon California Trail 190

Oregon City, California 313

Oregon Trail 63

Oregon Trail Road 50

Oroville, California 14, 54, 58, 71, 246, 309

Orphelia

John Bidwell’s haircutter 268

Oser’s 335

Other Bidwells [The], Margaret Ramsland 386

Top of page

Paine, Dr. Edwin, head of Greenville school 333

Pamaho’s [Pamoho] wife 103, 148, 224

death of 104

Park College 350, 353

Parker, Mary

friend of Annie 32

Parry, Dr. C. C., botanist 158, 181, 186, 187

Patapsco River 197, 198

Patriotic Phalanx 309

Paul, Frank 322

Pavilion, the 163, 166

Paxton, Rev. 142

Pence, California 136

Perkins, Senator George C. 133, 231, 317, 341

Perry, A. A. 184

Petersen, Fred 372

Philadelphia Centennial Celebration 150

Philadelphia Exposition 114

Philadelphia Press 173

Phillips, Philip 86, 88

Pickler, Mr. 170

Pierce, Edward T., normal school principal 18, 23, 272

Pike’s Peak, Colorado 187

Pinchot, Gifford

chief of the Bureau of Forestry 293, 362, 406

Pine Creek, California 96

Placerville, California 161

Portland, Oregon 188, 190, 320

Potts, Walter 220

Powellton, California 96

Powers, Mr., Stanford professor 232

Prattville, California 249, 294, 295

Preacher, Billy 151, 155, 226, 228, 350

Nopanny, wife of 151, 224

Preacher, Mrs. Nopanny 225. See also Nopanny

Presbyterian Church 27, 371

financing of 73, 78, 82, 83, 84, 86, 193, 253

Presbyterian Church Board of Home Missions 317, 353

transfers rancheria land to BIA 355

Presbyterian College Board 321

Presbyterian Mite Society 58, 61, 95, 157, 163, 271

president, Annie resigns as 100

prohibition 300, 309

Prohibition Alliance 309, 326, 336

Prohibition Party Convention in Butte County 201

Prohibition Party National Convention in Ohio 202

Bidwell’s letter of acceptance 203

Prohibition Train 309

Promontory, Utah 70, 77

Proud, William and Florence (Blake) 136, 365, 372, 374

marriage of 365

William John, son of 365

Pulisse, Rufus 220, 241, 245, 350

Top of page

"Queen to preside at his Mansion" 164

Quincy, California 246

Top of page

Ragan, "Aunt Eliza" 367

Ramona Hotel, San Francisco 366

Ramsland, Margaret 386

Rancheria Lane 151

Rancho Chico 34

abundant produce 271, 316

Bidwell’s aspirations of 50

creation of subdivision maps 259

heavily in debt 59, 75, 117, 168, 258, 287, 298

mismanagement of 43

mortgage paid off 259, 315

property taxes 50, 53

purchase of 34, 276

undivided remainder sold 321

Rancho Chico Fruit Camp 329

Rancho Chico Indians 397

Rancho del Arroyo Chico 63, 346

Raphel 386

rattlesnakes 95

Reading, Alice, portrait artist of John Bidwell 292

Reading, P. B., John Bidwell’s fellow pioneer

Alice Reading, daughter of 292

Record 307

Red Bluff, California 163

Redding, California 128

Reed, Anna (Morrison) 403

critic of Annie, temperance and prohibition 314

daughter of Guy Morrison 313

editor and lecturer 314

Reed, Dan 296, 407

Reed, Harry 42, 58

Reed, John 313

Reed, Marietta 296

Reed, Mary (Bidwell) 32, 42, 58, 205, 255, 262, 376

daughter of Daniel Bidwell 50

Reed, Mrs. Harry

Dan, son of 296

Marietta, daughter of 296

Reich, Prof. 171

Remington bill 311

Remington, Sen. W. E. 311

Republican Party 22, 40, 173

Republican Party Convention 55

retreat for Presbyterian ministers 297

Revolutionary War 19, 29

Reynolds 20, 174

Reynolds, Fannie 44

Reynolds, Jane Judith Ellicott Kennedy 20

Reynolds, Jane Maria (Sergeant) 20

Reynolds, John Van Liew 15, 17, 20

Reynolds, Julia 236

Reynolds, Lydia L. (Craighead) 20

Reynolds, William 20, 236

Rice, Rev. 148

Richards, John

help provided by Annie 304

Richardson, Larry V. 407

Richie, Mr. 159

Rideout Bank 91

Rio Chico Subdivision 316

layout supervised by Annie 317

Rio Chico Way 317

Ripples Along Chico Creek 386, 390

Rising, Mr. 307

Rising Star 47

Roamer the beautiful greyhound 113, 275

Robbie, Mrs. William 307

Robin’s Nest 257, 294, 297, 341, 368

1906 jolliest season 296

Annie’s last visit 322

naming of 294

willed to Presbyterian Church 297

Robinson, Henry 71

Roseville, California 77

Roseville junction 93

Royce, Col. C. C. 186, 205, 239, 259, 272, 315, 320, 330, 336, 377

Royce, Mrs. Belle 186, 213, 292, 377

Rudderow, John 392

Ruffas 251

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S.S. Sacramento 47

Sacramento Avenue 151

Sacramento Bee 286, 380

Sacramento, California 139, 263

Sacramento River 94, 139, 272, 319

new bridge weakened 166, 188

Sacramento Union 312

Sagerstown, Pennsylvania 145

Samantha 149

Sampson, Evangeline "Eva" 215, 221

marriage to Guy Kennedy 221, 368

San Francisco, California 58, 62, 94, 139, 183, 185, 190, 254, 263, 277, 294, 322

months spent in by Annie 213, 345, 363

San Francisco Chronicle 106

hateful accusations of John Bidwell 202

San Francisco earthquake of 1906 375

San Francisco Presidio 135

San Francisco Union Trust Company 370

San Francisco Weekly Examiner 45, 386

San Jose Normal School 171

Sarah (orphan) 107

Sargent, W. G. 46

Sawyer, Dr. 97

Schooler, William, attorney 244, 246, 247

partner to Guy Kennedy 248

Sergeant, Jane Maria (Reynolds) 20

Serra, Junipero 293

Sesook 149

Shaw, Rev. Anna Howard 231

Sherman, General William Tecumseh 36, 45, 75, 162

Shinn, Dr., head of Forestry School, UC, Berkeley 324

Shover, Dr. Michele 110, 390

Sierra Polytechnic Institute 361

Silvers, Pablo 220, 241, 350

Simpson, Billy

death of 303

Simpson, Juanita 355

Sir Joseph Hooker Oak 320

Sisson, California 129

Sisson, Mr. 129

Skelton, Henrietta 194, 237, 310

preaches for Rev. Graham 209

Slack, Jesse 337

slavery, the issue of 29

Smith, Fannie 221, 236

sister of Eva (Sampson) Kennedy 221

soap factory burned 124

Sommer, Mrs. Carl "Willie" 162

Spreckels Meat Market 295

Spreckels, Mrs. 344

Spring Valley Mine 139, 169

Sproul, J. D., district attorney 242, 283

serves George Clements warrant 244

St. John, Mr.

National Prohibition Party chairman 201

St. Wells, Rev. 55

Stanford, Governor Leland 34, 64, 191, 293

Stanford, Jane 407

Stanley, Grace 152, 392

Stansbury, Dr. Oscar 182, 184, 252, 272, 291

Stansell, Lois, former secretary to Guy Kennedy 402

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady 229, 233

State Automobile Association 291

State Joint Board of Normal School Trustees. 279

State Prohibition Conference 182

Statuary Hall of Fame 293

Stephens, Mrs. 246

Stevens, Mrs. (Auburn) 184

Stevenson, William D. 107, 118, 122, 149, 292, 367

death of 123, 150

Steward, Susan 44, 46, 51, 206. See also Jones, Susan

Stewart, George 99, 133

Stewart, Miss Mary 103, 104, 148, 149

Stewart, Reverend Dr. A. M. 109

death of 100

Fairbairn, Rev. Alex, replacement of 95

first sermon 97

funeral paid by John Bidwell 101

Stirling City, California 295, 304, 342, 367

Stone, Mr. and Mrs. R. Foster

WCTU organizers 304

Styles, Mr. 316

suffrage for women 191, 229, 230, 232, 300, 302, 379

final campaign in California 349

Supt. of Scientific Temperance Instruction 181

Surface, Ira E. 308

salary supplemented by Annie 308

Susy (Indian) 149

Sutter, John 63, 277

death of 270

Sutter, John Jr. 47

Sutter’s Fort, California 47, 111

Swartzlow, Ruby 406

Swedenborg, Emmanuel 72

swim place 240

Top of page

Table Mountain, California 61, 313

Tacoma, Washington 190

Taylor, President Zachary 18, 22

Tehama, California 88

The Prohibitionist 203

Tichenor, Mesdame 113, 275

Tilden, Belle 91

Tilden, Dr. Thomas 306

Tilden, Dr. William P. 91

Tilden, Mollie 91

Tonoco 227

Tonoka 214

Trincano, Madame 135, 158, 392

Trinity School in San Francisco 189

True, Ben 124, 133

Twain, Mark 206

U.S. Centennial celebration 113

U.S. Department of Interior’s BIA 355

U.S. Supreme Court 285

Ulke, Mr.

artist 44, 48

Union Railroad 70

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Vallombrosa 320, 376

Vancouver, B.C. 188

Vanguard 309

Vaughn, John 308, 368

salary paid by Annie 308

Victorian age 37, 40, 261

Vincent, Mrs. 107

Vindicator 309

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War between the States 23, 25, 29, 32, 34, 114

Warman, Prof. 195

Warren, Rev. 161

Warren, Robert, Chico justice of the peace 243

Washington, D.C.

Kennedys move to 15, 22

Washington Evening Star 270

Washington, General George 19, 20, 216

Wayland, Cora E. P. 85, 86, 189

Kennedy, John Reynolds, marriage to 85

Wayland, Dr. Joseph F. 73, 74, 137, 182

Wayland, John 163

brother of Cora E. P. (Wayland) Kennedy 120

Wayland, Mrs. Emma 61, 74, 84, 182, 271

Webster, Daniel 216

wedding ceremony April 16, 1868

San Francisco Weekly Examiner report 45

wedding, John and Annie’s 42, 43, 44

Westar, General 46

Whig Party 21, 173

White, John Bidwell 372

son of Rev. W. G. White 372

White, Narcissa E. 169

White, Rev. Willis G. 253, 256, 257, 328, 331, 339, 372, 380

white ribbon pledge of abstinence 262, 302, 305, 375

Wiggs, Evelyn Dorthy 368

Willard, Frances E. 204, 231, 258, 302, 310

William Dickey grant 34, 63

Williams, Senator 62

Wilson, Amanda 350, 354, 373, 390

Wilson, Amanda (Lafonso) 112, 224, 351

Wilson, Birnie 220, 328, 347, 351

studied ministery with Annie’s financial help 328

Wilson, Edward 328

Wilson, Eva 328

Wilson, Mandy 380

Wilson, Santa 327, 328, 339, 350

Wilson, Sherman E. 328, 355

Wilson, Thelma

daughter of Sherman Wilson 355

Winding Way 274

wine 36, 66, 193, 273, 301, 311, 312, 314

grapes 66, 67, 301, 319

Winoka, Chief 149

Woertendyke, James, Prohibition Party chairman 308, 310

Women’s Board of the Panama-Pacific International 363

Women’s Christian Missionary 367

Women’s Christian Temperance Union 162, 231, 379

Annie K. Bidwell WCTU chapter 291

Chico Frances E. Willard Branch of WCTU 162, 302, 303

WCTU branches 163, 304, 307, 315, 339, 371

WCTU Free Reading Room 181, 303

WCTU National Convention, 1900 208, 258

Women’s Congress, San Francisco 211, 325, 358

Women’s Federated Clubs of California 364

Women’s National Congress 231

Women’s Pavilion 363

Women’s Relief Corps 181

Wong 73

Woodhull, Dr. 135, 160

Woodhull, Maggie (Ellicott) 135, 160

Woodman Academy, Chico’s first school 300

Woodman, Rev. James M. 231, 300

Woodman, Saline [Selena] Marie 163, 231, 300, 303

Woods, Rev. and Mrs. 104, 105, 148

Irene, daughter of 109

Woods, Rev. John 104, 115, 150

accused of improper behavior 108, 115

back salary paid by John Bidwell 116

resigns and leaves Chico 116

Woodward, Miss Mary 307

Work, Mesdame 113

World’s Exposition in San Francisco 364, 374, 380

World’s Fair in Chicago, 1893 204, 207, 235

Worldwide Christian Endeavor Convention in Glasgow 344

Wozencraft, O. M., U.S. Indian agent 223, 324

Wylie Local Option bill, 1910 309

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YMCA building, gift of lot for 316

YMCA Mission (Washington, D.C.) 17, 27

Yosemite Valley 89, 139

Young, Earnest 220

Young People’s Christian Endeavor Conference 329

Youth Missionary Society 181

Yummarine, Chief 396

Top of page

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