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History of Butte County by George Campbell Mansfield
Reprint with additions and index of Mansfield's History of Butte County, California, with Biographical Sketches published in 1918

About the author

The son of a Canadian grain buyer, George Mansfield was born in Ontario, Canada, November 9, 1880. In 1887, the family moved to California, originally settling in the county of San Luis Obispo. Later, George attended public schools in Santa Maria and Berkeley. Following graduation from high school, George enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley, receiving his bachelor of letters degree in 1902. While in his senior year, he served as editor of the Daily Californian, the university's student newspaper.

For a time, George vacillated between high school teaching and newspaper jobs. Finally, he decided on a career in journalism and accepted appointment as an editor for a magazine syndicate in San Francisco, only to see the firm abruptly disintegrate during the earthquake and fire of 1906.

That same year, he was invited to come to Oroville and become editor of the Daily Register, then owned by the Boynton family, which was prominent in Butte County business and political circles.

On September 11, 1911, he married Mess Bertha Margaret Simpson, who was born at Honcut January 23, 1887, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George H. Simpson. At the time of her marriage, Margaret (who preferred to use her middle name) was teaching school in San Joaquin County. She would subsequently bear two sons and assist her husband in the research for his monumental History of Butte County, published in 1918, and later, his illustrated the Feather River in '49 and the Fifties, published in 1924 and reprinted by Margaret in 1948. Other publications of note included Butte, the Story of a California County, 1919, and Butte County, California, a pictorial booklet promoting the various attributes of the region for prospective homeseekers.

While serving as editor of the Register, George was appointed to the State Highway Commission by Governor W. D. Stephens. In this position he became a long-term promoter for a state highway to connect Oroville with Quincy and Reno.

In 1927, the Register was merged with the Oroville Mercury and George ended a 21-year association with the newspaper. During that time, he was one of the strongest boosters for the mining, agricultural, and recreational potentials of the region.

In his final editorial, published on September 30, 1927, George recalled his eventful career with the newspaper and discussed his steadfast adherence to a policy of publishing a "clean, wholesome, upstanding" journal that was always "constructive, helpful and friendly."

The following year, George became a partner in the development of a summer home subdivision at Lake Madrone but was soon prevailed upon by Bert B. Meek, former assemblyman from Butte County and then director of the State Department of Public Works, to become editor of the California Highways magazine. During the administration of Governor James Rolph, Jr., George was appointed recorder to the State Railroad Commission, a position he held until the time of his death at his home in San Francisco, January 28, 1936, after a year-long illness. He was 57.

Following her husband's death, Margaret continued her former career in education, founding the Margaret Mansfield School for Handicapped Children in Burlingame shortly after World War II. She retired from the Sacramento school system in 1959 after achieving statewide recognition for her innovations in the teaching of remedial reading. The family still retains propery and social connections in Butte County.

Mrs. Mansfield passed away in 1969 while visiting her son, George, Jr., in Honolulu. --James Lenhoff, 1996

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Sponsors of  the reprint of Butte County History 1918

Leslie and Alita Abshier

David M. Brown

Lou Chrysler

John B. Copeland

Alan Hensher

Mack and Dorothy Hill

Denise Kaveney

Archie and Lois McDonald

Martha Slade

Leonard and Mildred Whitegon

Association for Northern California Records and Research

Bank of America

Bidwell Mansion Association

Butte County Historical Society

Chico Heritage Association

Heidelberg Graphics

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Index of George C. Mansfield's History of Butte County

Abbott, Henry S., description of Indian life on Chico Creek, 1855, 30.

Abell, W.H., 67.

Abietine Industry, 319.

Abraham, Albert, biographical sketch, 1122.

Adams, George, Justice of Peace, 149.

Adams, I.B., biographical sketch, 1142.

Adams, William, surrendered for murder, 281.

Adams & Co., see Express Companies.

Adams Bar, see Adamston.

Adamston, location, 69; preacher at, 98-99; hotel kept by Adams, 99; Neal mined at, 43.

Adkins, Eva, tragedy after marriage, 314.

Agricultural fairs, citrus fairs, 303; during sixties, 240; during nineties, 326; during 1910-1918, 360; in Chico, 294.

Agriculture, agitation to sub-divide large ranches in seventies, 290; almonds, 356; Bidwell's interest in and experiments, 134, 168-69, 240; drought in rest of State causing influx into Butte, 1877, 291; early methods told by R. A. Moore, 180; effect of climate on variety of crops, 20; oranges, 171; first commercial planting, 170; Mother Orange Tree, 240; peaches-prices, 1857, 170; raisins cured at Durbin's 2210 boxes produced, 1855, 295; increased attention to oranges, figs, small plantings, 40; price of seed, 1851, 168; wheat decline in production, 304; leading producing county, 1875, 295; increased plantings, 239; Hamilton and Chico as the first agriculture centers, 168; hops, 355; 1855, 168; 1858, 169; 1865, 238-39; 1863-1865, comparative statistics, 239; 1860s, 239-40; 1870s, 290; 1880s, 302; 1890, 322-26; 1900-1918, 354-58; annual report of County Horticulture Bureau, 404; land values, 1863, 181; Marketing Association formed, 1870, 294; rice, 356-57; State Land Settlement colony, 357-58; sugar beets, 355; transition from mining to -, 167; U. S. Plant Intro. Gardens, 354-55; unknown land grants, 40, 172, 173.

Ah Ben, murderer, 283.

Ah Gow, escape from jail, 295.

Ah Lee and Ah Coon, murderers, 311.

Ah Lin, murdered, 281.

Ah Ping, murdered, 282.

Ahrens, Henry F., biographical sketch, 867.

Ah Yen, murdered, 282.

Albright, Judson, biographical sketch, 1107.

Albro, Thomas, charges against, sentenced, 282.

Allen, B.B., libel suit against, 285.

Allen, David, learned of Confederate conspiracy, 229.

Allen, Isaac, murder attempted, 253.

Allen, Isaac M.M. and John E., M.D., biographical sketch, 481.

Allen, John H., 229.

Allen, John Henry, biographical sketch, 870.

Allen, Thomas, murdered, 198.

Alles, Peter, murdered, 282.

Allison, John L., biographical sketch, 905.

Almonds, Butte County third in State production, 404; development of industry, 356.

Altitudes, Butte County, 403-04.

American Gold Dredging Company, taking over of dredging properties of Oro Electric Corp., 353.

American Institute of Mining Engineers, visit to Oroville, 1899, 340.

American Valley, Beckwourth's starting point when searching for pass, 47; on Beckwith Trail, 51; passenger travel to Sacramento from, 182-83.

American Valley Ranch, now Quincy, 51; proprietor approached by Beckwourth, 48.

Ames, E.D., 379.

Amusements, bull and bear fights, 121 and 265; dances of the fifties, 122; debates in Oroville, 123; horse racing, 120, hunting, 121; hurdy-gurdy girls, 122, theatricals-amateur and professional, 123.

Anderson, Charles Pleasant, biographical sketch, 1199.

Anderson, R.A. (Sheriff), believed just man by the Indians, 210; defeated for sheriff, 339; grizzly bear hunt, 121-22; published booklet "Fighting the Deer Creeks," 225; pursued Indians attacking the Workmans, 220-23; as sheriff, 225.

Anderson, Cap. Robert Allen, biographical sketch, 635.

Anderson, Robert, discovered cache of gold coins, 384-85.

Anderson, Robert Nelson, biographical sketch, 1216.

Andrews, James, murdered, 314.

Antelope, 121.

Anti-debris sentiment, in eighties, 298; in 1900s, 358; hydraulic mining convention, 1892, 327; litigation, 268-69; Sacramento meeting, 368; Spring Valley Mines constructive attack on problem, 297.

Anti-foreign sentiment, 161, 164, 273, 276, 305-06.

Anti-saloon agitation, 374.

Antram, Cyrus C., biographical sketch, 933.

April Fool's election, 139-40.

Arbuckle, Dock Glenn, biographical sketch, 1233.

Archer, Noal Alexander, biographical sketch, 535.

Arents, H., libel suit against, 285.

Arguello, Captain Louis, discovered Picachos (now Sutter Buttes), 1820, 36.

Armstrong, H.H. and Brother, biographical sketch, 1112.

Armstrong, J., 253-54.

Armstrong, Jasper Newton, Sr., biographical sketch, 761.

Arrastre, use in quartz mining, 90-91.

Arrows, method of poisoning, flint secured at Table Mountain, 189.

Asser, John, biographical sketch, 1284.

Australian emigration, 102.

Ayers, James Richard, biographical sketch, 1128.

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Baccala, Victor, biographical sketch, 860.

Bacon, George K., biographical sketch, 1011.

Bacus, Charles Edgar, biographical sketch, 860.

Bader, Charles, 76.

Baghdad, location, 68; named by A. G. Simpson, 119.

Bain, Mr., death of, 60-62.

Bair, Walter C., biographical sketch, 1176.

Baker, Bob B., biographical sketch, 1007.

Baker, Colonel, Harper case, 152-53.

Baker, James, 76.

Baker, Reuel C., county jail contractor, 144-45; Justice of the Peace, 149; mentioned, 183.

Bald Rock Canyon, unsuccessful attempt to have made a national park, 391.

Baldwin, Simon, house polling place in territorial election, 137.

Baldwin, William Thomas, biographical sketch, 783.

Balfour, Guthrie A., rice experiments on land of, 356.

Ball, Charles, 275.

Ballew, Joseph Henry, biographical sketch, 828.

Ballew, Richard J., biographical sketch, 493.

Ballow, Frank J., murdered, 332.

Bancroft, Mr., left Bidwell Bar, 70.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe, quoted on foreign emigration to gold fields, 44.

Bangor, anti-Chinese organization, 251; CRIMES-lynching, 1857, 150-51; episode of Jim Webster, 158, murder of H. Devol, 332; Kimbrell and Dickhouse killed, 383; description, 72; fire, 1892, 334; first public school, 115-16; houses bought from Bidwell Bar, 70; private school, 115; rivalry to name settlement, 72; settled in 1855, 72; served by South Feather Land and Water Co., 347; Treasure Tree, 336.

Banner Mine, plant fossils found, 385; location and description, 91; McLaughlin promoted in eighties, 298; McLaughlin secured control, 1894, 328; mill burned, 1880, 320; renewed activity, 368; reopened in 1879, disclosed two skeletons, 294.

Barber, annexed to Chico, 364; Diamond Match Co., plants at, 359; suburb of Chico, 359.

Barham, Buck, 206.

Barham, Charley, 206.

Barham, John, 206.

Barham, Lorenzo I., biographical sketch, 522.

Barker, C.O., 213-14.

Barnard, T.H., 306, 316, 318; biographical sketch, 779.

Barnard, William Everett, biographical sketch, 1218.

Barnes, Frank, biographical sketch, 1213.

Barnes, Joseph L., biographical sketch, 1222.

Barrett, James, 273.

Barrett, John, on Birch and Barrett Mine, 300.

Barrington, Mr., partner of Hi Good, 223.

Barrington, Mrs., 223.

Barrow, Samuel A., biographical sketch, 1056.

Barry, J.D., 272.

Barry, Silas T., biographical sketch, 861.

Bartee, Mr., 185.

Bartholomew, I., Justice of the Peace, 149.

Bartnett, Walter J., interest in Stockton and Beckwith Pass Railroad, 343.

Batchelder, H.T., county clerk, 333; death, 390; testimony in Fuller Will case, 333.

Bathurst, William James, biographical sketch, 1302.

Bauer, Carl F., biographical sketch, 1134.

Baumeister, Edward E., M.D., biographical sketch, 1024.

Bay, Harmon, biographical sketch, 481.

Bay, Harmen, 240.

Bay Counties Power Co., purchased Butte County Electric Co., 352.

Bayles, Mrs. Mary A., biographical sketch, 1024.

Baynon, James, biographical sketch, 896.

Baynon, Mary Ann Powell, biographical sketch, 896.

Beaglers, J.R., superintendent Plant Introduction Gardens, 355.

Beagles, R.L., biographical sketch, 846.

Bean, Albion, biographical sketch, 960.

Bean, Jack, 238.

Bean, John, biographical sketch, 1188.

Bean, Moses, appointed county judge, 144; elected county judge, 141; files election report, 144; first county judge elected, 148.

Beard, W.A., editor of Oroville Mercury, 338.

Bears, bear hunt, 121-22; grizzly bears described by Bidwell, 36-37.

Beck, John, burned, 334.

Becker, J.M., 275.

Beckwourth, James, discovery of Beckwourth Pass, 47; autobiography written in Beckwourth (Sierra) Valley, 51.

Beckwourth Trail, see Overland Trails in California, Beckwith Trail.

Bedell, Theodore C., biographical sketch, 494.

Beik, Henry Albert, biographical sketch., 826.

Bell, Francis T., biographical sketch, l064.

Bell, H.C., 303.

Bell, Hugh Thomas, biographical sketch, 521.

Bendle, John S., 277.

Benner, J. W., biographical sketch, 1158.

Bennett, Mrs. Annie L., biographical sketch, 1073.

Bennett, Daniel Anderson, biographical sketch, 977.

Bennett, Isaac R., biographical sketch, 1156.

Bennett, James Archibald, biographical sketch, 1163.

Bennett, James Nelson, biographical sketch, 798.

Bennett, Jesse, biographical sketch, 1170.

Bennett, John Wesley, biographical sketch, 727.

Bennett, Mark J., biographical sketch, 1231.

Bennett, Schuyler Colfax, biographical sketch, 1124.

Bennett, Wesley Valentine, biographical sketch, 1177.

Berdan, Myron G., biographical sketch 444.

Berry Creek, second sawmill in county, 93; mill employee buries gold, 101.

Berry, John S., Justice of the Peace, 156.

Besse, D.B., Justice of the Peace, 149.

Bicknell, Harry C. biographical sketch, 1226.

Bicknell, Thomas, biographical sketch, 1225.

Bidsworth, William, biographical sketch, 450.

Bidwell, A.R., notary public in water development, 350-51.

Bidwell, Mrs. Annie E.K., biographical sketch, 426; death, 136; Indian houses described by, 29; interest in Indians, 136; interest in temperance, 136; marriage to General Bidwell, 136.

Bidwell, General John, biographical sketch, 418; attacked in Oroville press, 244; assisted Indians of his rancheria in pursuit of band of mountain Indians, 1850, 185; believed irrigation to be successor to hydraulic mining, 302; biography, 128-36; constructed toll road to Honey Lake, 242-43; contributed to Oroville Bridge fund, 292; court case settled by horse race, 156; described early California life, 40-41; discovered gold, July 1848, 42; donated land for proposed county seat at Chico, 285; elected to first State Senate, 137; established trading post, 37; favored Nobles Pass as rail route, 183; first glimpse of Butte County, 36; gave lots to anyone building in Chico, 1860, 240; helped secure mail route to Boise, 243; horses stolen, 36; Indian trouble, 1856, 188; influence in development of agriculture and horticulture, 134; interest in improvement of Humboldt Road, 1898, 331; land sub-divided after his death, 361-62; member committee on counties and county boundaries, 137; President Hayes visits county at Bidwell's invitation, 299-300; purchased Arroyo-Chico land grant, 38; pursued Indians, 1863, 200; reference to Indian life, 24; settlement of Indian disputes on his Rancho, 217-18; tax assessment, 1856, 168-69; visit to Coloma, 42.

Bidwell Bar, amateur theatricals, 123; Beckwourth received subscription for Beckwourth Trail, 48; Bidwell discovered gold at, 42; Bliss first teacher, 115; Butte Record first published at, 117; County seat led in disputed election, June, 1850, 67; lost to Hamilton City, August, 1850, 144; made county seat by legislature, 1853, 145; described by E. W. Slater, 64-65; described by Wells and Chambers, 67; Dutton & Co. advertisement in Butte Record, 118; gambling, 97; justice in miners court, 151; McCallan children lost, 1879, 296; mail to Elizabethtown, 104; miner's objection to sale of salve as butter, 114; mining laws of, 94-95; Mother Orange Tree planted, 170-71; party of Mrs. Whipple arrived, 54; passing of, description, 1856, 70; polling place in territorial election, 137; prostitution at, 100; school staff, 1853, 115; stages from Oroville, 110; stages to Marysville and their routes, 109.

Bidwell Bar Bridge, construction of, 181-82; murderer caught at, 277; purchased by county, 1883, 308.

Bidwell Farm, Capt. W.A. Glassford has dinner at, 23; products in 1851 and 1856, 168-69.

Bidwell Indians, see Indians, Michopdos tribe.

Bidwell Mansion, date of completion and cost, 242; Hayes reception, 300; Presbyterian College home, 136; on Arroyo Chico land grant, 39; on tax assessment roll, 1856, 168-69.

Bierce, Raymond, murdered and suicide, 314.

Big Bend Company, proposed to irrigate Honcut district, 323.

Big Bend Tunnel, construction, 299; success as a power venture, 340; acquired by Great Western Power Company, 351.

Big Butte Creek, land grant on, 39.

Big Chico Creek, Indian camp on, 29.

Big Meadow Project, 349, 351.

Biggs, E.E., Gridley treasurer, 367,

Biggs, Marion Sr., Biggs named for, 264; biography, 264; Representative Congressional District at county convention on State Constitution, 284.

Biggs, accused of monopolizing road money, 316; anti-saloon election, 374; Butte County Register first published in, 289; cannery started, 326; census, 1890-1910, 394; county convention on State Constitution, 284; CRIMES-Jaggard murdered, 1879, 283; murder near, 309; Riddle murdered near, 313; robbery at, 1913, 381; Walker killed, 281; electric line to, proposed, 331; fire, 1878, 289; fire, 1890, 334; Fremont camped near, 36; growth during seventies, 290-91; incorporated, 367; irrigation development, 346-47; irrigation district proposed, 323; laid out by Pitts and Posey, 264; meeting to discuss debris question, 269; rice planting, 346-57; settlement and origin of name, 264; Union High School organized, 390; unsuccessful attempt to organize sanitary district, 389.

Billings, Joe, killed, 283.

Billiou, Joseph, wife murdered, 313.

Bills, Charles, robbed, 314.

Binet Brothers, biographical sketch, 585.

Binney, surveyor, 244.

Binney, A.J., 308.

Binney, Schuyler, murderer, 332.

Bird, Henry, Columbus located near his place, 68; Rancheria located below place, 90.

Bird, R., county contractor for county jail, 144-45.

Bird, Capt., Oroville, street named for, 120.

Birmingham, Arthur B., biographical sketch, 612.

Bishop, A.W., began Chico Courant, 261.

Blakeslee, Rev. S.V., early day preacher, 98.

Bliss, W.T., first Bidwell Bar teacher, 115.

Bliver, "Uncle Ben," 182.

Block, C.H., on first Gridley board of trustees, 367.

Block, Herman J., biographical sketch, 999.

Blood, A. F., libel suit against, 285.

Bloomer Hill Mine, 368.

Bloomfield, Charles, found meteoric fragment, 336.

Blue Lead Mine, 72.

Board of Supervisors, action on failure of California Northern Railroad to pay interest on bonds, 266; adopted drastic anti-gambling law, 390; appropriations made by,1900-1918, 360; compensation, 260; contributed to site purchase for U. S. Plant Intro. Gardens, 354; entered agreement on building Sacramento River Bridge, 359; redistricting of, 316, 373; rejected county seat election petition, 385-86.

Boatright, Vol Walker, biographical sketch, 1267.

Bogue, Virgil S., appointed engineer for railroad, 343.

Bollinger & Chambers, promoters of Oroville and Virginia City, 267.

Bond, Major Lon, biographical sketch, 1233.

Bond, Lon, 372-73.

Bonell, Lockwood and Company, gold production, 76.

Boness, William, 206.

Bonner, Thomas D., 47.

Bonnifield, Allen H., biographical sketch, 1267.

Books on Butte County mentioned in Mansfield's History, Anderson, R.A. (booklet) "Fighting the Deer Creeks," 225; Bonner, Thomas D., "Life of James Beckwourth," 57; Carson, Mrs. A. Thankful (Lewis), "Captured by the Mill Creek Indians," (Pamphlet), 201; Crosette, Geo. H., "A History of Butte County," 274; Crowder, D.F., "Reminiscences" published in Chico Enterprise, January, 1918, 193; Delano, Alonzo, "Life on the Plains and Among the Diggins," 185; Dunstone, James, "Reminiscences," published in Register, May, 1884, 170; Farish, Thomas Edwin, "Gold Hunters of California," 85; Fariss and Smith, History of Plumas, Lassen and Sierra Counties, 50; Goldsmith, Oliver, "Across the Plains in '49," 54; Keefer, James L. "Biography," 168; Sexton, Warren T., "History of Butte," 42; "Past and Present of Butte County," (article), 139; Wells and Chambers, History of Butte County, 101.

Boon, Janes, 141.

Bornholdt, John H., biographical sketch, 1296.

Boston Ranch, James Andrews killed, 314; now Hurleton, 314; Smith Hurls kept Boston Ranch house, 244.

Boucher, Mrs. A.M., murdered, 309.

Boucher, Joseph, Jr., 331.

Boucher, Josiah, at convention, 284; death, 293.

Boughden, Jim, 206.

Boulware, Mrs. Emma E., biographical sketch, 1046.

Boulware, Thomas M., biographical sketch, 1013.

Boulware, William T., biographical sketch, 1032.

Boundary changes, see Butte County-area.

Bower, Nehemiah, biographical sketch, 526.

Bowers, J.H., on Oroville Board of Education, 365.

Bowers, R.S., director Oroville Water & Power Co., 338.

Bowman, George W., biographical sketch, 837.

Boyles, Samuel N., biographical sketch, 551.

Boynton, Albert E., elected to State Senate, 375-76; on first Board of Trustees., Oroville, 364-65.

Boynton, Mrs. Kate Hutchins, biographical sketch, 534.

Boynton, Seth Sprague, biographical sketch, 528; purchased Oroville Register, 302.

Boys of '49, 124-25.

Braden, G.W., on first Board of Trustees, Oroville, 365-66.

Brandreth, William, found diamond at Cherokee, 369.

Brascom, Jack, shot Indian, 258.

Brenham, Charles J., land grant title to, 179.

Brereton, Emerson D., biographical sketch, 1272.

Breslauer, Isadore, biographical sketch, 672.

Brick yards, established towns became settled, 93; near Chico, 242; in Oroville, 295.

Bridges, at Enterprise, 295; at Marysville would stop navigation of Feather River, 113; Bidwell Bar Bridge, 181-82; during eighties, 308; during 1900-1918, 359-60; Feather River Bridge span collapsed, 379; fire on Sacramento River toll bridge, 1903, 378; on Feather River, 247-48; Oroville Bridge washed out, 1907, 377; Oroville "Free" Bridge, 291.

Briggs, E.S., 376.

Brink, Henry S., biographical sketch, 784.

Briscoe, Mrs. Emily S. Withington, biographical sketch, 500.

Briscoe, Henry Parmenas, biographical sketch, 415.

Brittan, H.M., summary of variety of Butte County products and soil, 19.

Broderick, Senator David C., Oroville street named for, 120; bitter controversy over, 166-67.

Brooke, George M., biographical sketch, 1249.

Brooks, Charles, murdered, 102.

Brooks, Mrs. E.A., first Wyandotte teacher, 115.

Brooks, Inez, killed, 384.

Brough, John M., biographical sketch, 984.

Brouillard, M.F., biographical sketch, 1313.

Brown, Alex, 183.

Brown, Case N., biographical sketch, 527.

Brown, Charles C., biographical sketch, 905.

Brown, Hon. Charles H., biographical sketch, 662.

Brown, Charles J., 183.

Brown, Constable, 255.

Brown, Enos H., biographical sketch, 1279.

Brown, Frank L., in financing of Big Bend Tunnel, 351.

Brown, H., death of, 62.

Brown, J.W.E., 141.

Brown, Joe, murdered, 383.

Brown, Joseph, father of Mrs. John C. Dooley, 113; describes arrival via Lassen Horn route, 52-53; report on prices of supplies, '49, 113; arrival at Morris Ravine, 77-78.

Brown, Pulaski, biographical sketch, 502.

Brown, William, on first Gridley Board of Trustees, 367.

Brown, William, lynching of, 150.

Browning, Charles Lot, M.D., biographical sketch, 850.

Brownson, Miss Gladys, county librarian, 361.

Broyles, Chester, biographical sketch, 1266.

Broyles, J. Washington, biographical sketch, 596.

Broyles, Nathaniel, biographical sketch, 1237.

Broyles, Washington, biographical sketch, 595.

Bruce, Alfred P., biographical sketch, 935.

Bruce, Charles C., biographical sketch, 1157.

Bruce, John, 206.

Bruce, William H., biographical sketch, 500.

Burens, Mrs. Elizabeth, biographical sketch, 791.

Brush Creek, Post Office established, 104; thirty-five ounce gold piece found, 271; mill burned, 1890, 334.

Bryan, A.J., 316-17.

Bryant, C.M., 318.

Bryson, Edward, 196.

Buckabee, John R., Assemblyman for Plumas and Lassen Counties, 249.

Buckeye, on Beckwith Trail, 51.

Buck's Ranch, sheltered miners overnight, Dec., 1852, 60; miners decide to find way back to, 61; Beckwith Trail passed east of, 51.

Buffum, A.C., named Magalia, 260.

Bull and Bear fights, 121, 265.

Bullington, Perry Franklin, M.D., biographical sketch, 769.

Burch, J.H., 141.

Burch, Thomas J., 197.

Burche, B.F., 141.

Burdick, Cyrenus J. and Sarah A., biographical sketch, 582.

Burk, Joseph Francis, biographical sketch, 822.

Burkett, C.M., 376.

Burleson, William D., biographical sketch, 1218.

Burnett, Peter J., member first party of Oregon emigrants, 38, 44.

Burnham, Z.W., 316.

Burr and French-see Express companies.

Burt, J.M., arrival at Long's Bar, 1849, 69; buys out Long Brothers, 69; elected County Attorney, 141.

Burt Brothers, built Palermo olive plant, 356.

Busche, Captain, 189-90.

Butcher's Ravine, nugget found, 75.

Butte and Plumas Railway, subsidiary of Northern California Mining Co., 342; subsidiary of Truckee Lumber Co., 345-46.

Butte City, past prime, 1853, 63; Bidwell made provision that Chico or Butte City be County Seat, 143-44.

Butte County, area, present time, 18; boundary changes, 142-43; first boundaries, Act, 1850, 139; in 1851, 97; charter, 376; division proposed, 171, 259-60, 287, 331; election of first officials, 1850, 141; first Board of Supervisors created, 1855, 146; county not represented at first legislative session of State Legislature, 394; one of original nineteen counties, 18, 138; organizational election, 139, 142, 144; origin of name, 139; plan to annex part of Colusa County, 331-32; purchased Bidwell Bar Bridge, 1883, 308; JUDICIAL SYSTEM, district courts, 147-48; county court, 148; probate court, 148; Court of Sessions, 144, 148-49; Justice Courts, 149; Miners' Courts, 149; Colusa County grouped with Butte County for judicial purposes, 139; BUILDINGS, addition to Courthouse, 295; at Bidwell, 145; at Hamilton, 144-45; at Oroville, 146; Chico raised funds to construct, 1873; Court of Sessions ordered all County buildings removed to Bidwell Bar, 145; first office hotel room, 144; Hall of Records litigation, 373; SEAT, Bidwell Bar led in disputed election, June, 1850, 67, 141, 144; lost to Hamilton City, August, 1850, 144; Oroville elected County Seat, 1856, 145; controversies, 1873, 284-86; 1874, Butte Record supported Chico, 289; 1914, 371-72; Lynchburg rival of Oroville, 69, 145; provision that Chico or Butte City be seat made by Bidwell, 143-44.

Butte County Agricultural Association, 240.

Butte County Canal, building of, 346; better known as Sutter-Butte Canal, 347.

Butte County Citrus Association, 389.

Butte County Electric Company, 352-53.

Butte County Land and Water Company, 323.

Butte County Light and Power Company, formed, 1897, 338.

Butte County Railroad, built by Diamond Match, 341; acquired by Southern Pacific, 341; freight train wreck, 379; robbers' escape via, 380.

Butte Creek, Bidwell camped on, 36; dredging field on, 358; formed portion of County boundary, 19; grizzly bears on, 36-37; head dam on, 353, land grants on, 38-39; murder on, 384; Spring Valley Mine tailings in, 269, 297.

Butte Creek Electric Power and Lighting Company, incorporated, 1899, 338.

Butte Democrat, revived, 1859, 118, 261.

Butte Engine Company, saved part of Oroville business district fire of 1857, 66.

Butte Hydraulic Mining Company, dredger operations, 301.

Butte Mountains, see Sutter Buttes.

Byrne, Thomas, biographical sketch, 1236.

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Cable, Frank, killed, 340.

Cain, F.W., biographical sketch, 871.

Caldwell, B., 376.

California and Idaho Stage and Fast Freight Company, 243.

California and Oregon Railroad, completion spurred interest in proposing more construction, 265; effect of completion on Durham, 171; filed on non-mineral lands, 273; later Central Pacific,, 264; officials attend Chico inauguration of Central Pacific, 264; route via Stockton, 266; surveyed Nelson, 265.

California Cart, described by Bidwell, 40-41.

California Emigrant, 125-26.

California Northern Railroad, connected with Central Pacific at Marysville, 266; construction, 245-46; county bonds in aid of, 166; failure to pay interest on bonds, 266; now part of Southern Pacific, 245; settlement of bonds owned by Company, 307; sold under foreclosure to N.L. Rideout, 307; purchased by Southern Pacific, 307.

California Pacific Railroad, completed to Marysville, 1870, 266; route via Vallejo, 266.

California State College of Agriculture, Butte County presents claim for, 1866, 234-40.

California State Constitution, County Convention held at Biggs, 284.

California State Land Settlement Colony, 357-58.

California State Legislature, roster for Butte County Senators, 394; roster for Butte County Assemblymen, 395; not represented at first legislature session, 394.

California Steamboat Navigation Company, ran to Chico, 240.

California Volunteers, Company F of Second California Volunteers stationed at Chico, 208, 229; Company I at Fort Bidwell, 229.

Callaway, Frank Marion, biographical sketch, 1057.

Callow, Thomas, libel suit, 285.

Calloway, W.P., 146.

Campbell, C.E., murdered, 281.

Campbell, Charles Stewart., biographical sketch, 1053.

Campbell, John, murderer, 283.

Campbell, Joseph S., biographical sketch, 972

Campbell, Robert W., biographical sketch, 1166; heard meteor fall, 336.

Campbell, William, found site where meteor struck, 1892, 336.

Camper, Charles Henry, biographical sketch, 676.

Camper, H.H., 316.

Cana, Chinese murdered at, 309; Sessions home burned, 320; site surveyed by J. Hubble, 265.

Canfield, George E., 376; biographical sketch, 1115.

Canning industry, growth of, 326, 355.

Cannon, Little Giant manufactured in Oroville, 1861, 246; in "Fall of Richmond" celebration, 235.

Cape Claim, biggest fluming operation clean-up, 75.

Carder, Barney, murdered, 282.

Carmack, H., involved in Fuller Will case, 333.

Carmack, Mrs. Margaret Josephine, biographical sketch, 504.

Carpenter's Hill, Swayne Lumber Company office on, 88; mining at, 88.

Carson, Mrs. Arenia Thankful Lewis, account of her escape from Indians and death of her brothers, 201-07; biographical sketch, 445.

Carter, George, 225.

Cary, H.W., 158.

Caspare, Adolph Norbert, biographical sketch, 1089.

Cattle, reared on land grants, 40; number in 1855, 168.

Centerville I, located between Oroville and Lynchburg, 69; also known as Middletown, 69.

Centerville II, located on Butte Creek, 352; power plant at, 352.

Central House, capture of Hong Di near, 313; Gridley-Central House bridge, 308; on Bidwell Marysville road, 109; school established, 1858, 115.

Central Pacific Railroad, acquired California and Oregon Railroad, 264; built west of Feather River, 249; completed to Chico, 1870, 264; tracks east of the Sierra, 243; train attached to force tax payment, 307.

Central Union Leagues, by-laws of Oroville Branch, 229-30.

Chabot, A., discovered hydraulic mining method, 80, 89.

Challenge, lumber mills burned, 320.

Chalmers, Watson, 316.

Chamber of Commerce, grants to, 360.

Chambers, John, killed, 384.

Chambers, W., issued Chico Semi-Monthly Review, 289.

Chambers., William, 335.

Channon, T.D., on first Gridley Board of Trustees, 367.

Chaplin, Miles, report on Butte County agriculture, 1855, 168; elected County Superintendent of Schools, 115.

Chapman, A.H., at convention, 284.

Chapman, William, biographical sketch, 513.

Chapmantown, murder of A.J. Crum, 309; pump set at, 363.

Chappell, R.R., Justice of the Peace, 149; Deputy Sheriff, 163-64,

Charge, John W., biographical sketch, 859.

Charley's Ranch, on Bidwell-Marysville road, (now Friesleben Ranch), 109.

Chatfield, Charles Edwin, biographical sketch, 1018.

Cherokee, anti-Chinese sentiment, 306; arrest of maniac near, 293-94; church established, 116; diamond mining, 369-70; discovery of diamonds, 263; fire, 1888, 320; jury trial at, 258; miners killed, 1892, 339; mining in 1864, 262-63; murder at, 276-77; on Bidwell's route to Bidwell Bar, 42; origin of name, 72; post office established, 104; Spring Valley Mine at, 267, 269.

Cherokee Canal, to carry tailings to Butte Creek, 269; broke its banks, 1879, 288.

Cherry, O.W., robbed, 255.

Cheyney, Binney and Company, contractors, 246.

Chico, agricultural fairs, 294, 360; anti-Chinese meeting, 1894, 336; anti-saloon election, 374; benefitted by irrigation, 355; Butte Record officially published at, 1874; California Volunteers stationed at, 208; California Steamboat Navigation Co., ran to, 240; cannery, 326; Central Pacific completed to, 264; Central Pacific train attached at, 307; CITIZENS CONTRIBUTE TO: Chico Landing Bridge, 308; improvement of Humboldt Road, 331; purchase fund for site of U. S. Plant Introduction Gardens, 354; Oroville Bridge fund, 292; Chico Anti-Chinese Association boycott, 306; EARLY CHURCHES, 116; during sixties, 261, ground donated to every church, 135; climate, 21; Congressmen visit, 389; county division proposed, 171, 259-60, 287, 331; raised fund to construct buildings on proposed site, 284-85; COUNTY SEAT CONTROVERSY, 1873, 284-86; provision, Chico or Butte City to be made county seat, 143; CRIMES, Fuller Will case, 333-34, 379-80; McDonald and Dolliver stabbed, 281; murder and suicide, 1889, 314; murder of Chinese woman, 283; murder of Dr. Cory, 281; murder of Mrs. R. Little, 332; murder of Lt. Livergood, 254; murder of Lena Schmidt, 311; murder of George Walley; 332; murder of Thomas White, 278; murder of Wheelock, near Chico, 282; safe breakers in 1915, 381; Slaughter case, 382; disincorporation petition illegal, 338; early agricultural development at, 168; efforts to attract mountain freight trade, 1879, 291; entertained N.S.G.W., 1890, 338, N.D.G.W., 1894, 339; entertained State Assessor, 390; electric power for, 352; Faulkner, Chas. & Geo., bankers, 86; FIRES, Chinatown burned, 319; in seventies, 288; in 1882, 320; in 1891, 1895, 334; in 1903-Griswold Lumber Company, 387; in 1903-Sierra Lumber Company, 378; in 1904-Sierra Lumber Company, 378; in 1911-Chico High School, 379; first court held at, 144, 148; fruit shipping point, 355; Hayes, President and party, visited, 299-300; Hooker, Major, to receive Indians for transportation to reservations, 214; Humboldt Highway and Idaho Road, 242-43; in 1860s, rapid growth, 240, 289; in 1880-1910, census, 392; in 1900-1918, 361-64; incorporated, 1872, 289-90; Indians camped about Flume Street, 29; laid out by Bidwell, 135, 240; located partially on Farwell land grant, 38-39, 172; lumber mill at, 283; National Guard Co., 335; new post office, 390; newspapers of sixties, 261; newspapers of seventies, 289; Northern California Power Co. entered, 353; Northern Electric Railroad to, 345; railroad to Stirling City, 341; Red Cross Chapter at, 388; stages to Oroville and Marysville in sixties, 240; SCHOOLS, early school, 116, high school, 337, 339, 379; $10,000 horse race, 120; Township officals fee claims questioned, 373-74; U.C. Forestry Station granted, 1893, 339; Reunion victory celebrated, 236; Y.M.C.A. established, 387.

Chico and Humboldt Wagon Road, franchise expired, 308; improvement in 1897-1898, 331; incorporated, 1864, 242; leased, 1883, 308.

Chico Courant, 1864-1869, 261.

Chico Creek, Indian name for, 25; seen by Bidwell, 1843, 37; land grants on, 39.

Chico Electric Street Railroad, 362.

Chico Ice & Cold Storage Co., biographical sketch, 874.

Chico Landing, bridge completed, 1882, 308; bridge destroyed, 1889, 308; "California" sinks near, 110; Indians gathered for removal to reservation, 212; navigation to, 110, 242.

Chico State College, see Chico State Normal School.

Chico State Normal School, establishment of, 316-18; Bidwell donates land for, 135; Van Liew elected President, 1899, 340; Van Liew removed, 1910, 386.

Chico Vecino, located on Arroyo Chico land grant, 39; platted by Bidwell, 361; annexed to Chico, 364.

Children, few in county in fifties, 97; number in 1852, 114.

Chinese, anti-Chinese sentiment, 162-64, 251-52, 273-76, 305-06, 336; Chinese burying ground, 252; Committee of 100, 306; CRIMES BY CHINESE AND AGAINST THEM: accused of robbery near Gridley, 1877, 282; acts of violence against Chinese, 271, 274-76; Ah Gow escaped jail, 295; Ah Ping stabbed, 1878, 282; Ah Yen killed, 1877, 282; attacked at Fairfield Bar, 218-19; Chico attack on Chinese, 273-77; Chinese woman killed in Chico, 283; crimes against, 150-51, 163; crimes by Chinese, 271; held up near Oroville, 282; killed by Indians, 186; murder in Oroville, 310-11; one killed at Potter's Bar, 215; robbing of Chinese resulted in lynching at Bangor, 150-51; effect of news of gold discovery, 44; first Chinese in California, 45; first marriage license issued to Chinese couple, 262; flooded, 1862, 258; killed by mine cave-in, 268; mined at Baghdad, 119; mined at Rancheria, 90; mined at Lava Beds, 269-71; FIRES: Oroville Chinatown burned, 66, 288, 320, 355; Chico Chinatown burned, 319; NUMBER OF: in sixties, 251; in Oroville in sixties, 251-52; in seventies fluctuation of population, 289; decrease in population in late seventies, 290-91; number of population in seventies, 270-71; left in droves, 1880, 320; Oroville Chinatown, 1873, 270; population of Columbus largely Chinese, 68.

Chinese Pump, described, 86.

Choisser, Louis Drexler, biographical sketch, 1155.

Christensen, Sander, biographical sketch, 1019.

Christie, W.H., part in developing dredgers, 329.

Christopher, Samuel, biographical sketch; 801.

Chrome, produced in 1916-1918, 370.

Chubbuck, James M., biographical sketch, 678.

Chulamshu, Indian name for Chico Greek, 25.

Churches, absence of in fifties, 98-99; churches during sixties, 261-62; ground donated by Bidwell to every church in Chico, 135; in Oroville, 365; statement on early church service, 116; Gridley Presbyterian church burned, 334; services at Forbestown, 70.

Churchman, Harry Louis, biographical sketch, 1087.

Citrus, increase in plantings, 326; Butte County Citrus Association, 389.

Citrus Fairs, see Agricultural Fairs.

Civil War, avid interest in Civil War news, 227-28; enlistments in army, 228-29; sentiment for North and South, 228-31; celebrating Union victories, 232-33.

Clampers Hall, 117.

Clark, John A., account of Concow Indians, 189-90; account of attack on Indians at Mike Wells', 210; blames attacks on Indian women for much of Indian trouble, 100.

Clark L.D., published Oroville Mercury, 289.

Clark, Liston K., biographical sketch, 1253.

Clark, W.A., biographical sketch, 1247.

Clayton, Hiram James, biographical sketch, 1161.

Climate, 18-24; see also Floods, annual rainfall, 402; earliest killing frosts, 402; hail storm, 1882, 321; in seventies, 287-88; mean temperatures, 402; statewide drought caused influx to Butte County, 291; winter of 1852-53, 59-62; winter of 1889-90, 304.

Cline, C.S. probation officer, 382.

Clipper Mills, location, 70; established in 1855 by A.P. Wiley and Elisha Scott, 70; V-Flume to Honcut from, 283; 318.

Clough, F.M., Diamond Match Representative, 341, 362; interest in Chico Electric Street Railroad, 362.

Clough, Frank A., biographical sketch, 1170.

Coal mining, in sixties, 263.

Cochran, Bert, in 1907 flood, 377.

Cochran, R.M., 240, 242.

Cohasset, naming of, 318.

Coins, see Currency.

Colby, G.W., 265, 287.

Cole, L.E., taught at Bangor, 115.

Cole, Peter H., biographical sketch, 912.

Coleman, Daniel, 67.

Coles, Alexander, Justice of the Peace, 149.

Collins, Captain, 246.

Collins, Mrs. Matilda L. Wright, biographical sketch, 921.

Colm, John Q., biographical sketch, 796.

Colman, Charles, biographical sketch, 1189.

Columbus, site, Chinese population, 68; steamboat stop, 68.

Colusa County, for judicial purposes annexed to Butte County on formation, 139; plan to annex part of, 331-32.

Compton, Adam M., biographical sketch, 581.

Compton, Daniel L., biographical sketch, 995.

Compton, H.C., biographical sketch, 601.

Compton, H.C., Sr., biographical sketch, 509.

Compton, Joseph, biographical sketch, 1258.

Compton, Mary Murdock, biographical sketch, 510.

Compton, William, freed his slave, 226.

Concow, believed site of first Butte County quartz mines, 90; school established, 1858, 115; dam carried out, 1873, 288; on proposed electric railroad, 330.

Concow Township, names of mining camps in, 71.

Concow Tribe, see Indians-Concow Tribe.

Concow Valley, home of Konkau tribe, 25; Indian attack on Workman, 219-23.

Conley, John, 287.

Conly, John, senator from Plumas County, 249.

Conway, F.E., arrested, 275, 282.

Cook, I.H., biographical sketch, 1080.

Cook, Wert, 198.

Coon, William, biographical sketch, 840.

Cooney, M.J., biographical sketch, 789; estimated Butte County gold production, 73; account of clean-ups in Forbestown district, 75-76; acquired mining interests at Forbestown, 368; represented U.S. Diamond Mining Co., 369.

Cooper, John, biographical sketch, 1273.

Cooper, Joseph, 355.

Copper, excitement in 1863, 263.

Corcoran, William, California Northern Railroad deal, 307.

Cornehl, Ferdinand, biographical sketch, 1320.

Cory, Dr. J.C., murdered, 281.

Couch, Thomas, part in developing gold dredging, 328-39.

Coulm, John, 206,

County conventions, 374-75.

County Seat, see Butte County Seat.

Court procedures, 155-56.

Courts, see Butte County Judicial system.

Coutolenc, Eugene Fortune, biographical sketch, 844.

Coutolenc, murder at, 383.

Cox, sold arrastre to Bill Nevens, 92.

Coyle, Frank, murdered, 280.

Crabb, James N., M.D., biographical sketch, 785.

Craig Brothers, biographical sketch, 1065.

Crane, Noe B., biographical sketch, 851.

Creeks, Indian name for, 25; land grants on, 38-40.

Crenshaw, Hiram J., biographical sketch, 1240.

Crew, A.H., 287, 316, 317, 318.

Crew, Henry William, biographical sketch, 797.

Crimes, see also-Vices, absence of theft in fifties, 101; against Chinese, 150-51, 163, 274-75; causes of in fifties, 102-03; Chinese robbers use cave hide-out, 271; crimes of fifties, 156-61; crimes of sixties, 252-53; crimes of seventies, 276-83; crimes of eighties, 309-16; crimes of nineties, 332-34; crimes of 1900-1918, 379-84; early punishment for theft, 149-54; highway robberies, 254-57; increased with arrival of Sidney Duck, 102; judicial jurisdiction over, 149; lynching thwarted by W. W. Hobart, 159; miners' courts 149; Safety Commission formed at Oroville, 296.

Crosette, George, 287; editor of Butte Record, 118; Justice of the Peace, 149; presided at anti-hydraulicking meeting, 298; objected to counting Chinese in Board of Supervisors redistricting, 316; describes anti-Chinese episode, 274-75.

Crouch, Ben E., biographical sketch, 964.

Crouch, John, 331; biographical sketch, 482.

Crowder, Charles L., biographical sketch, 1079.

Crowder, D.F., account of Chinese trouble in Chico in seventies, 273-76; account of Indians and Indian trouble, 193-96; account of murdered Hickok children, 198-99; comment of absence of slavery question as national issue, 226; estimate of Chinese population, 251; tells avid interest in Civil War news, 227; tells early days in Chico, 241-42.

Crowder, Doctor Franklin, biographical sketch, 511.

Crowder, Thomas Burton, biographical sketch, 1059.

Croziers Hill, location of Oroville's East Side School, 88.

Crum, A.J., murder of, 309-10; suit against Spring Valley Mine, 268.

Crum, Albert Elery, biographical sketch, 890.

Crum, Frank Pierce, biographical sketch, 911.

Crushed rock, 358-59, 370.

Cuddeback, DeWitt Clinton, biographical sketch, 922.

Cuddeback, Edson N., biographical sketch, 1327.

Cuddeback, Peter W., biographical sketch, 1234.

Culver, Miss Essae M., biographical sketch, 1256; county librarian, 361.

Cummins, Thomas Jefferson, biographical sketch, 945.

Cunningham, N.C., 245.

Curran, Agnes, biographical sketch, 1217.

Curran, William Louis, biographical sketch, 901.

Currency, California coins, 114; Spanish, English and Mexican money, 114; use of gold dust, 114.

Curtis, Joseph G., biographical sketch, 1082.

Curty, William P., shot, 383.

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Daingerfield, Wm. P., District judge, 148.

Dallas, Mrs. J.M., drowned, 376.

Dal Porto, Vincente, biographical sketch, 1148.

Daly, Charles E., biographical sketch, 839.

Daly, Dr. J.M., see Van Refer, A.C.

Daly, John, 228.

Dances, in fifties, 96, 122.

Daniels, S.L., 275.

Dargy, Mr., 222.

Dark Canyon, Big Bend tunnel emptied into, 299.

Darrow, Willard, 198.

Daubytown, "suburb" of Bidwell Bar, 70.

Dausen, H.D., Oroville Assessor, 365.

Davids, Assistant District Attorney in Slaughter case, 382-83.

Davids, Harry Thys, biographical sketch, 983.

Davidson, A.G., 197.

Davis, mined below mouth of Morris Ravine, 43; first settler at Thompson's Flat, 70.

Davis, R., 261.

Davis, S.J., 261.

Davis, Thomas Henry, biographical sketch, 1163.

Davis, W.W., 240.

Dawson, R.H., 199.

Day, F.W., attacked by Chinese, 271.

Dayton, eclipsed by Durham with completion of California and Oregon Railroad, 171; murder near, 309; fire, 1891, 334.

Deadwood claim, 75-76.

Dean, William B., biographical sketch, 821.

Dean & McCoy, proprietors of Meadow Valley House, 60.

Debates at Hamilton City, 123.

Debris sentiment, see anti-debris sentiment.

DeCourcey, Harry, editor Butte Record, 117-18.

Deer Creek, on Lassen Trail, 46; cyclone, 1857, 321.

Deer Creek Indians, see Indians-Deer Creek.

DeHaven, W.N., publisher, Northern Enterprise, 261, 289.

Delaney, Dave, 225.

Delaney, J.T., home dynamited, 384.

Delano, Alonzo, 185.

Delavan, Leander, biographical sketch, 514.

DeLong, D.M., proposed Electric Railroad, 330-31.

De Marais, Claude Cole, biographical sketch, 989.

De Mott & Gray, editors Oroville Mercury, 289.

Dennison, S.C., 352.

Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, surveys of Feather River Canyon, 322, 341.

Dermody, Rev. James Bernard, biographical sketch, 1204.

Derrick, Col., laid out townsite of Oregon City, 1856, 72.

De Ruchie, E.V., biographical sketch, 1147.

De Sabla, Eugene Jr., promoted Northern Electric Railroad, 345; with Butte County Electric Co., 352-53; organized Valley Counties Power Co., 353.

De Sabla, record rainfall, 391.

Deuel, Charles Hastings, biographical sketch, 689.

Devol, Henry, killed, 332.

Devol, Norman, biographical sketch, 512.

Dewsnup, John F., biographical sketch, 1252.

Diamond Match Co., formed Butte County Railroad, 341; establishment in county, 359, 362; backed Chico Electric Street Railroad, 362.

Diamonds, discovered in Cherokee, 263, 271; report on, 301-02; 1900, 369-70.

Dick, Alexander, found record of Fremont's visit, 36; as Indian fighter, 186.

Dickey, William, 132, 172, 179; Arroyo Chico land grant to, 39; with Bidwell when gold discovered, 42.

Dickhouse, Edward, murdered, 383.

Dickinson, E.S., murdered, 278.

Diller, Roland and Mae H., biographical sketch, 1255.

Dillman, George L., preferred Deer Creek to Feather River Railroad route, 343; negotiated Oroville right of way for Western Pacific, 366.

Ditches, Feather River and Ophir Water Co., 70; Forbestown Ditch, 72, 87; 400 miles of, 272; Frenchtown Canal and Mining Co., 72; Miocene Ditch now supplies City of Oroville water, 298; Oroville and Feather River Ditch, 64, 69; some present irrigation systems utilize, 171; South Feather (Palermo) Ditch, 89; South Feather Land & Water Co., (Forbestown Ditch), 72; to obtain water for "dry diggings," 87-88.

Dix, Commodore Palmer, biographical sketch, 1036.

Doctors, at Rich Bar East Branch, 65; death of Dr. Bartholomew, 259; murder of Dr. Cory, 281; Dr. W. Pratt, 199; Dr. Edwards, 200; Dr. Holshlaw murdered bride, 282-83; Dr. Mack planted olives, 339.

Dodge, Sheriff, E.K., 123.

Dog Express, see Express Companies.

Dogtown, Civil War episode, 231; fire in 1870, 288; Indians returning from reservations seen at, 215; later named Magalia, 231; lumber flume began near, 283; origin of name, 73; Pence seeks aid of, to fight Indians, 186; resin and turpentine center during Civil War, 237-38; road to, 1865, 238; Antone Williams killed near, 281; Archie Willson sent to jail, 1882, 320.

Dogtown Nugget, finding of, 74.

Dolliver, Marshall, 364, killed; 281.

Dooley, James, sentenced, 282.

Dooley, Captain John C., biographical sketch, 117.

Dooley, Thomas, biographical sketch, 1165.

Dorsch, H.G., injured, 288.

Dorn., G.W., libel suit against, 285, 316.

Dougherty, James Barton, biographical sketch, 885.

Down, James, murdered, 281.

Downer, D.D., Oroville street named for, 120.

Drainage Districts, 348.

Dredgers, see mining and mining methods.

Dredgerville, flood casualties and damage, 1907, 377.

Drinking, see vices.

Dry Creek, Indians killed in canyon, 187; outlet of Cherokee mines, 268-69; Crum Ranch on, 310.

Duckles, F. M., first Oroville Y.M.C.A. Secretary, 387.

Duensing, Fred Adolph, biographical sketch, 1101.

Dugger, James Madison, biographical sketch, 815.

Dumpville, near Pentz, 283.

Dunahoo, William Henry, biographical sketch, 1017.

Duncan, W.E., Jr., 366.

Dunkum, C., 146,

Dunlap, Mordecai, 60, 62.

Dunn, 67.

Dunstone, Justice, 279.

Durbin, C.L., 300.

Duren, W.H., 67.

Duret, C.L., 293.

Duret, C.M., constable, 293.

Durham, almond industry, 356; attempted burglary, 380; completion of California and Oregon Railroad, 171; first State land settlement colony, 357-58; Dr. Holshlaw murdered bride, 282; hurricane struck, 321; land values, 305; mosquito abatement district formed, 386; origin of name, 265; wheat grown around, 239.

Durham Milling Co., biographical sketch, 902

Durham, R.W., 265.

Dutton and Co. advertisement in Butte Record, 118.

Dutton, David, on Esquon grant, 172.

Dye, Job F., 183.

Dyer, George W., biographical sketch, 451; mined river bed at Oroville, 86; account of Sunday A.M. sales of gold dust, 114.

Dyer, Henry A., biographical sketch, 1210.

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Earl, Guy C., 352.

Eames, A.G., biographical sketch, 773.

Eames, Henry Alan, biographical sketch, 878.

Earl, Guy C., 352.

Earll, Miss Lillie, account of establishment of Chico State Normal School, 316-18.

Earll, William, 316, biographical sketch, 1075.

Earthquakes, in 1872, 295; in 1881, 320.

Eastman, Sylvester Gridley, biographical sketch, 966.

Eaton, Ira, claims at Oroville, 89.

E. Clampus Vitus, 117.

Eckron, Adic, hung, 253.

Eddy, Robert D. and Agnes T., biographical sketch, 959.

Edge, Isaac, biographical sketch, 731.

Edison, Thomas A., sent McLaughlin to Butte to hunt platinum 297; Reduction Works, 301.

Edison Ore and Milling Co., 301.

Edman Mine, on Beckwith Trail, 51.

Edson, E.B., 318.

Edwards, Dr., 200.

Edwards, Leslie M., biographical sketch, 1088.

Ehmann, Mrs. Freda, biographical sketch, 792; development of olive industry, 323, 326; family active in causing Y.M.C.A., 387.

Ehmann Olive Co., beginnings of, 323-26; enlarged, 355.

Eicher, John Cunningham, biographical sketch, 756.

Ekman, A., estimate of Butte County gold production, 73; made assay of, meteorite, 336.

Ekman-Stow Company, 323.

Elder, John, operated ferry, 110,

Election precincts, in 1866, 260; Tehama County gained most of Lomo precinct, 286; formed, 1851, 147.

Elections, anti-saloon elections, 374; "April Fools" election, 1850, 139-40; Chinese exclusion issue, 276; County seat election, 1856, 145; County seat election, 1914, 371-72; for sheriff, 1894, 339; gubernatorial election, 1910, 375; judicial election, 1852, 148; organizational election, 1850, 139-42; Presidential ballot, 1852-1916, 393; roster of County offices and ballots on public questions, 1849, 395-401; territorial election, 1849, 137; woman suffrage granted, 390; in 1872, 284; in 1876, 284.

Electric power development in nineties, 338; in 1900s, 348-53; Great Western Power plant at Las Plumas, 364.

Electric Railroads, proposed in 1899, 330-31; Northern Electric, 345; Sacramento and Northern Railroad, 345; Chico Electric Street Railroad, 362.

Elizabethtown, on Beckwith Trail, 51; postal service to, 104.

Elliott, J.T., Justice of the Peace, 149; performed first marriage ceremony in county, 97.

Elliott, Mrs. Mattie, biographical sketch, 900.

Emigrant Hill, on Beckwith Trail, 51.

Empire Hotel, Rich Bar, described by Shirley, 64-65; scene of robbery, 150.

Enloe, Newton Thomas, M.D., biographical sketch, 669.

Enterprise, location, 70; bridge, 1876, 295.

Entler, Frank L., biographical sketch, 1204.

Entler, Joseph Franklin, biographical sketch, 456.

Entler, Samuel Luther, biographical sketch, 521.

Epperson, Mr., planted almonds near Durham, 356.

Erickson, Emil, biographical sketch, 1011.

Ermatinger, Albert Henry, biographical sketch, 1076.

Estes, Albert, biographical sketch, 1319.

Evans, David Humphrey, biographical sketch, 449.

Evans, Herbert W., biographical sketch, 1071.

Evans, Joseph M., biographical sketch, 1103.

Evans, O.M., 146, 183.

Evanville, Civil War episode, 230-31

Evarts, F.D., F.D. Evarts and Co. Feather River Express, 106.

Evers, Fred, biographical sketch, 1219.

Evoy, Mary, 152-54.

Ewer, Seneca, Justice of the Peace, 149.

Express Companies, Adams and Co., 104, 106-07; Evarts & Co. Feather River Express, connected with, 106; Burr & French, 106; Wells Fargo & Co., 104, 107; robbery of, 255; withdrew company's service to Quincy because of robberies, 279-80; Whiting & Co., Dog Express, 106-07.

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Facciano, Charles, biographical sketch, 1142.

Fagan, E., 298; on first Gridley Board of Trustees, 367.

Fairchilds, Captain R.H., proprietor of Buck's Ranch, 60.

Fairfield Bar, Middle Fork, Indian attack on Chinese at, 218-19; river channel diverted, 85.

Fairlee, George Edward, biographical sketch, 1138.

Fairs, see Agricultural Fairs.

Falck, Charles Lawrence, biographical sketch, 1196.

Fales, Byron Moore, biographical sketch, 1304.

Fall, John C., 182.

Fall River Falls, unsuccessful attempt to have made National Park, 391.

Fallon, Thomas, land grant to, 38, 172.

Farish, Thomas Edwin, his "Gold Hunters of California" quoted, 85; statement on amount of gold taken from "49-56" Mine, 75; describes Banner Mine, 91; account of "E. Clampus Vitus," 117.

Fariss & Smith, illustrated History of Plumas, Lassen and Sierra Counties, disputing date of finding Beckwourth Pass, 50; quoted on "Gold Lake Rush," 57-58; describes hardships of winter of 1852-1853, 58-62.

Farley, Henry C., killed, 383.

Farm Adviser, office established 1918, 360.

Farming, see Agriculture

Farrelly, Phillip, murdered, 253.

Farwell, Edward A., land grant to, 38-39, 172, 179.

Faul, Frank George, biographical sketch, 1069.

Faul, Fred Edward, biographical sketch, 1067.

Faulkner, Charles, biographical sketch, 573.

Faulkner, Charles and George, mined at Oroville, 86; bankers of Chico, 86, 316.

Faulkner, Louis Glass, biographical sketch, 969.

Faulkner & Co., banking house flooded, 258.

Fawcett, John, biographical sketch, 1288.

Feather River, see also floods, attempts to mine bed of, 301, 326-27; Big Bend Tunnel, 299; dredging on, 328-30; gold discovered on, 42-43; gold production, 73-76; gold values spotted, 82-84; high water, 1892, 339; Indian tribes on, 25; land grants on, 40, 173-76; life in mining camp on, 54-56; mining on, 76-86; rich diggings on, 58; NAVIGATION: river declared navigable, 112-13; railroad projects in eighties, 307-08; Western Pacific, 341-45; September rise, 84; statistics on drainage, 1902-1915, 404; account in Nevada City Democrat, 184; arrival of first steamboat in Oroville, 111-12, 184; attempted to establish navigability, 112-13, 184; controversy over navigability, 246-48; controversy over navigability ended by construction of railroad from Marysville to Oroville, 248; in fifties, 68, 111; in eighties, 308.

Feather River Ditch, see Oroville and Feather River Ditch.

Feather River Express, see Express Companies.

Feather River Highway, "hint" in Quincy Union, 245; route recommended by Keddie, 245; agitation, 1874, 292; agitation, 1914, 391.

Feather River Highway Association, formed, 391.

Feather River & Ophir Water Co., canal started at Enterprise, 70; completed ditch in 1856, 119.

Fence Law, 238.

Ferguson, Robert J., biographical sketch, 1228.

Fernandez, Dionisio & Maceimo, land grant to, 40, 178.

Ferries, see Transportation.

Fetter, Charles, biographical sketch, 880.

Fiddler's Gulch, 75.

Fimple, B.R., 331.

Fimple, Rufus Harvey, biographical sketch, 1187.

Finances, assessments in mountain townships dropped, 1884, 321; California Northern Railroad failure to pay interest on bonds, 266; settlement of bond problem, 307; contributed to Humboldt Road Improvement, 331; $1000 contributed towards site purchase of U. S. Plant Intro. Gardens, 354; Sexton report, 1850, 164-66; treasurer absconded, 1886, 315-16.

Finchley, Walter, foiled robbery, 383.

Fink, Frederick, biographical sketch, 1223.

Finnicum, James Duncan, biographical sketch, 519.

Finnicum, Merriman, biographical sketch, 884.

Fires, Forbestown, 66; Oroville, 1857 and 1858, 66; Thompson Flat, 1856, 66; fires of seventies, 288; of eighties, 319-20; 1900-1918, 378-79.

First National Bank of Oroville, biographical sketch, 570.

Fitz, Albert, murdered, 283.

Flanagan, Thomas; convicted, 309.

Flea Valley, Co., flume collapsed, 283-84.

Fleishacker, Mortimer, interest in Lake Almanor Dam, 351-52.

Flemming, S., 298.

Flemming, Thomas, proposed irrigation system for Biggs and Gridley, 232; affiliated with Duncan McCallum, 346.

Flint J.C., elected County Assessor, 141.

Floods, in 1853, 62; report of flood about 1830, 62; in 1862, 246-47, 258-59; of 1805, 62; destroyed Chico Landing Bridge, 1889, 308; in 1881, 319; in 1907, destroyed Oroville bridge, 359; in 1909, central pier of Sacramento River bridge washed out, 359; in 1907, Oroville, 365; 1907, 376-77; 1909, 378.

Flour Mills, Chico, 237, 242, 306; Oroville, 291, 293, 378; California Flouring Mills burned, 320.

Flugge, Charles William, land grant to, 38, 179.

Flumes, see Mining Methods, Lumbering.

Fogg, Edmund Wilson, biographical sketch, 683; approached on sale of Miocene Ditch, 302; approached on sale of Palermo Ditch, 303-04; cashier, Rideout & South Bank, 303; Director of Oroville Water & Power Co., 338; estimate of Chinese population, 270; in Odd Fellows Home transaction, 337-38; on Board of Trustees, Oroville, 366, planted Olive Tract, 1887, 304; stand on public utilities, 366.

Forbes, B.F., established Forbestown, 1850, 70.

Forbes Creek, 75.

Forbestown, burned twice, 66; character of placer ground, 87; clean-ups in Forbestown district, 75-76; collection of foreign miners tax, 163-64; death of Dr. Bartholomew, 259; description, 70; early case of theft, 151; established by B.F. Forbes, 1850, 70; extensive "dry diggings," 87; fire, 1899, 335; hydraulic mining, 272-73; hydraulic mining described by Vail, 89; landslide, 1896, 339; mining rules, 93; murder of Mrs. J. Gurdy, 332; murder of W.W. Lemmon, 332; murder of miner, 1863, 215; Post Office, 104; quartz mining, 90-91, 301; renewed mining interest, 368; road to Woodville (Woodleaf) 244-45; stage service, 110; statement on gold values, 83-84; yield of "dry diggings," 87-88.

Forbestown Ditch, benefitted Wyandotte, 72; dug by South Feather Land & Water Co., 72; still used for irrigation, 87, 171; supplied water to Golden Bank Mine, 328; sold to South Feather Land & Water Co., 347.

Ford's Claim, at Rancheria, 75.

Foreign Miners' Tax, 162-64.

Foreman, William, biographical sketch, 452.

Foren, Eugene Edmond, biographical sketch, 1160.

Forks of Butte, Kimshew Township, Indian massacre, 1859, 188; mass meeting, Indian trouble, 1862, 197.

Fortier, Berthe, biographical sketch, 1324.

Fortier, Mrs. Charles, biographical sketch, 901.

Fossils, at Banner Mine, 385.

Foster, J.A., on first Biggs Board of Trustees, 367.

Fowler, C.B., early Assemblyman, 167; opinion on Butte agricultural lands, 167.

Fralick, D.D., Justice of the Peace, 149.

Franklin, Fred C., biographical sketch, 1274.

Franklin, John Allen; biographical sketch, 958.

Franks, Ernest L., biographical sketch, 1244.

Fraser, Harry, biographical sketch, 1268.

Fredonia, location of, 63, 67.

Freer, Leon D., in Oroville Citrus Association, 303, 317.

Freer, Sheriff Peter, at execution, 158, mentioned, 159, 285-86.

Fremont, John C., 36.

French Creek, proposed dam, 352-53; Truckee Lumber Co. holdings on, 346.

Frenchman Hill, on route of miners in December, 1852, 61.

Frenchtown, meeting to condemn assaults on Indian women, 187; location, 71.

Frenchtown Canal & Mining Co., Yankee Hill supply point for, 72.

Friesleben, Daniel N., 303; biographical sketch, 515.

Friesleben Ranch, on Huber land grant, 38.

Frishholz, John, biographical sketch, 970.

Flishholz, Mike T., biographical sketch, 970.

Fritter, John P., biographical sketch, 802,

Frost, Thomas J., biographical sketch, 987.

Fry, R.B., 75.

Fuller, Alfred, Fuller Will case, 333-34.

Fuller, E., Fuller Will case, 333-34.

Fuller, Frank, 334; heir in Fuller Will case, 379-80.

Fuller, Rolla, biographical sketch, 1200.

Fuller Will case, 333-34; 379-80.

Fulton, Howard, biographical sketch, 1139.

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Gage, David, 339.

Gallagher, Edward Michael, biographical sketch, 631.

Gallatin, Walter L., biographical sketch, 1319.

Galloway, Thomas, 183.

Gamble, W.A., 183.

Gambling, see Vices.

Gardella, Joseph, came to Butte, 306.

Gardella, Lawrence, biographical sketch, 1295.

Garden Ranch, on Marysville-Bidwell Road, 1854, 109; Oroville-Forbestown stage robbed at, 332.

Gardner, George E., biographical sketch, 809; Oroville City Attorney, 365.

Garlow, Peter, first Postmaster of Oroville, 104.

Garner, John, accused in Fuller Will case, 333-34, 379-80.

Gaskell, R.C., 248.

Gatchell, Ella F., M.D., biographical sketch, 1208.

Gattiker, August, biographical sketch, 1298.

Gaunby, George, captured, 283.

Gay, B.D., 298.

Gazelle, first steamboat to arrive at Oroville, 111-12, 184.

Gear, H.L., Plumas County District Attorney, 250.

Gebhart, Mrs, Mary S., biographical sketch, 832.

Gee, Charles, murdered Downs, 281.

Geiger, Mrs. Margaret E., biographical sketch, 520.

Gengler, John Nicholas, biographical sketch, 1140.

Gennessee Valley, on Beckwith Trail, 51.

Gerke, Henry, land grant to, 180.

German, John, special policeman, 251.

Gianella, Henry, biographical sketch, 1070.

Gianella, Joseph L., biographical sketch, 1152.

Giannella Bridge, murder victim dropped from, 384; construction, 359.

Gibson, Edward L., biographical sketch, 1116.

Gibson, Miss Marie, 318.

Giger, W.H., 335.

Gilstrap, Clarence H., biographical sketch, 1201.

Gilstrap, William H., biographical sketch, 1201.

Gingles, W.W., on Western Pacific Right of Way Committee, 336.

Girard, Joseph, biographical sketch, 1327.

Girdner, Leroy E., biographical sketch, 1297.

Girr, Jacob, trial and pardon of, 231.

Glass, Louis, account of hydraulic equipment at Spring Valley Mines, 297; account of Spring Valley Mine, 268; bond holder of Spring Valley Mine at time of foreclosure, 303, 339; received President Hayes' party, 300; Secretary of Spring Valley Mine Co., 300.

Glass, Miss, 277.

Glassford, Captain W.A., report on Butte County, climate, 20.

Gleeson, John R., 337.

Godfrey, J.W., on first Board of Trustees, Oroville, 365.

Goer Place, 220.

Gold, see also Miners-Mining-Mining methods-Gold, production

Gold Bank Mine, 92, 328.

Gold, discovery by Bidwell, Dicky and Northgraves, 42; largest nugget found in Butte Co., 74; Marshall's discovery, 41; quality of Butte Co., 74-78; value to Indians, 37-38, 46.

Gold Dredger, see Mining, Mining methods.

Gold Lake Rush, 57-58.

Gold Production, 1898-1916, 358; largest nugget, 74; of Butte County digging, 73-76; of California, 73; of Forbestown District, 83-84, 87-88, 272; of Gold Bank Mine, 328; of Magalia Ridge in eighties, 300-01; of other state digging, 73-74; of Spring Valley Mine, 268; reported by early miners, 45-46; statistics, 1880-1916, 404-05.

Gold Run, near Western Pacific Shops, 88.

Gold Rush, 41-63.

Golden Bank Mine, 368.

Golden Feather Channel Mining Co., 327.

Golden Gate Channel Mining Co., 327.

Golden Queen Mine, 91-92, 368.

Goldsmith, Oliver, account of life in Feather River Mining Camp, 54-56; arrived in same party as Sexton & Lott, 113; description of wing dam, 77; limit on purchase of provisions and costs related, 113.

Goldstein, J. Oscar, biographical sketch, 1148.

Good, Hi (Harmon) at Yankee Hill, 210; death of, 223-25; hated by Indians, 210; in posse capturing highwaymen, 257; joins pursuit of Indians who attacked Workmans, 219-223; organized Indian fighters, 199.

Goodenow, William C., biographical sketch, 1310.

Goodman, Horace Seymore, biographical sketch, 855.

Goodspeed, R.C., 331.

Goodspeed, Walter, death of, 62.

Goodwin, J.W., interest in power and water companies of Oroville, 353, 366.

Gore, Solomon, 198.

Gore, Tom, 121.

Gould Railroad interests, 341-44.

Goulden, Charles, biographical sketch, 1200.

Graham, E., 318.

Granahan, George, 206.

Grant, William, biographical sketch, 1048; interest in rice, 346.

Grasshopper, in 1855, 168; Indian method of catching, 194.

Graves, John W., biographical sketch, 1087.

Gray, Carleton, biographical sketch, 885; in Feather River Canal Company, 347; interested in Olive Products Co., 355; attorney in Fuller Will case, 334

Gray, Fred H., biographical sketch, 630.

Gray, George F., 228.

Gray, Rev. James, organized Methodist Church, Chico, 116.

Gray, James C., on Western Pacific Right of Way Committee, 366; started cannery, 321.

Gray, James Chadwick, biographical sketch, 546.

Gray, Judge John C., biographical sketch, 471; attorney in Looney case, 313; death of, 391; made first commercial planting of olives, 304, 339; succeeded Warren Sexton as Superior Judge, 390; Superior Judge, 304.

Gray, M., 331.

Gray, Tom, 144.

Great Western Power Co., acquired Big Bend Tunnel, 351; Las Plumas power plant, 364; management of, 352; organized Western Canal Co., 347; purchased Feather River Canal Co., 347; water rights secured, 348-51.

Green, Frank E., biographical sketch, 1072.

Green, Henry, 282.

Green, L.L., 336.

Green, Col. Robert Moore, biographical sketch, 539; manufactured abietine into patent medicine, 303, 319; on Western Pacific Division Shops Committee, 366.

Green, W.S., 257.

Greenwood, N., had mail contract, 104.

Gregory, Hon. H.D., biographical sketch, 755; on bench in Slaughter case, 382-83; appointed Superior Judge, 391.

Gribble, William H., biographical sketch, 1171.

Gridley, accused Biggs of monopolizing road money, 316; anti-Chinese and Japanese meeting, 1894, 336; anti-debris association, l882, 298; anti-saloon election, 374; "Belle of Gridley" built, 308; benefitted by irrigation, 355; bridge saved in 1907 flood, 377; cannery completed, 326; cannery picnic, first annual, 339; Constable Rogers robbed, 282; census, 1890-1910, 392; electric power for, 352; death of Helen Rumball, 381; fire in eighties, 320; fire 1891, 334; fire 1905, 378; Gridley Central House Bridge, 308; Gridley-Herald begun, 1880, 320; improvements reported, 321; incorporated, 1905, 367; increase in land values, 305; irrigation development, 346-47; Larkin grant land sold to squatters, 177; origin of name; 264; proposed irrigation district, 323; rapid growth in seventies, 290-91; Red Cross Chapter at, 388; Rice Mill, 357; rice shows, 360; Sutter-Butte Canal started, 304; Union High School formed, 337; United Brethren Church organized, 1864, 262.

Gridley, Clarence D., biographical sketch, 617.

Gridley, George W., biographical sketch, 617; Gridley named for, 264; an auctioneer in fifties, 265; ruined by Reaves failure, 287, 305.

Griffith, George Lacy, biographical sketch, 1211.

Griffith, James Watsley, biographical sketch, 831.

Grizzly Valley, on Beckwith Trail, 51.

Guerin, Rev. Patrick, biographical sketch, 1239.

Guilio, Edolph, murderer, 384.

Guill, John H., 240, 242.

Guill, John Hudson, Jr., biographical sketch, 690.

Gumm, Thomas Marshall, biographical sketch, 1055.

Gunby, Captain Joseph-Henry, biographical sketch, 982.

Gunn, Evelyn, poem by, 344-45.

Gurdy, James, murder and suicide, 332.

Guynn, Pleasant Marion, biographical sketch, 536.

Gwin, Harold J., 342.

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Hackett, Fred, biographical sketch, 1078.

Haile, Henry, biographical sketch, 1106.

Hall, Ham, plans for Oroville levee, 365.

Hall, J.C., killed, 339.

Hall, Jeff B., biographical sketch, 623.

Hallett, Judge, 275; Justice of the Peace, 309.

Hamilton Bend, Hamilton City located at, 68.

Hamilton, C.O., appointed coroner, 391.

Hamilton City, Bidwell prospected at, 42-43; County jail burned, 1877, 289; first County seat, 268; County seat lost to Bidwell Bar, 67; County made seat by second election, 144; debates at, 123; early agricultural development, 168; horse races, 120; location and rise and fall, 68; rapid growth in seventies, 289; school established, 1854, 115; sugar beet factory at, 355; wheat grown around, 239.

Hamilton, R.J., first Chico Y.M.C.A. secretary, 387.

Hamilton Township Reclamation Co., to protect farmers from mine debris, 269.

Hamlyn, J.J., on first Oroville Board of Trustees, 365.

Hammon, Wendell P., biographical sketch, 647; had water appropriation for power, 347; interest in horticulture, 329-30; Oroville Western Pacific Right of Way Committee, 366; organized Valley Contracting Corp., 358-59, 370; organizer in Olive Products Co., 355; part in developing gold dredging, 328-30; promoted Northern Electric Railroad, 345.

Hammond, Creed, 251.

Hammond, William H., biographical sketch, 776.

Hanging, last executions by hanging in Butte County, 311.

Hannah, Francis E., biographical sketch, 936.

Hansen, Albert Franklin, biographical sketch, 1307.

Hardy, George William, biographical sketch, 1263.

Harkey, William S., biographical sketch, 625.

Harkness, Edward, 303, 339.

Harney, G.W., 303.

Harper, John H., trial of, 151-54.

Harriger, John, biographical sketch, 1026.

Harriger, John F., biographical sketch, 1026.

Harris, John H., biographical sketch, 981.

Harris, P.H., attorney in Harper case, 152.

Harris, Patrick, 183.

Hart, A.S., contractor at Cape Claim, 75.

Hart, Thomas B., biographical sketch, 478.

Harten, Mrs. America Swinney, biographical sketch, 637.

Hartt, Theodore Augustus, biographical sketch, 767.

Harvey, George E., 318.

Harvey, George Washington, biographical sketch, 718.

Haselbusch, Henry, found old coins., 390.

Hassell, Sigvard, biographical sketch, 1276.

Hastings, J.M., on first Board of Trustees, 367.

Hastings, William, murder of, 254; County Supervisor, 254.

Hasty, William, 209, 211.

Hatch, Mr., started Chico Index, 261.

Hathaway, Hiron, biographical sketch, 1285.

Haugh, W.M., biographical sketch, 1086.

Hayes, John and George, shot, 200.

Hayes, President, visits Butte County, 299-300.

Head, A.E., biographical sketch, 1278.

Heath, John Leonidas, biographical sketch, 1326.

Heath, W.W., in Butte County Electric Company, 352.

Heckart, Francis Augustus, biographical sketch, 1029.

Hedge, B., built dredger, 272.

Hefner, Charles P., biographical sketch, 632.

Hefner, Philip, biographical sketch, 631.

Hegan, James, biographical sketch, 552.

Heimback, A.C., biographical sketch, 606.

Helltown, Indian trouble at, 200; near Paradise, 368.

Helphinstine, William Veale, biographical sketch, 915.

Henderson, James Theodore, biographical sketch, 1110.

Hendricks, T.P., 318.

Hendricks, W.C., 272, 287.

Henning, J.S., surveyed Chico, 240.

Henness Trail, see Overland Trails in California.

Henrietta Mining Co., 273; owned by Butte Hydraulic Mining Co., 301.

Henry, Allen, introduced assembly bill to establish normal school, 316.

Henshaw, James L., co-purchaser of part of Fernandez grant, 174, 177.

Henshaw, Col. Park, biographical sketch, 480; President of Butte County Electric Co., 352; in Northgraves litigation, 318; Colonel of Eighth California Infantry, 318, 335.

Hensley, James S., land grant for, 172.

Hernstreet, P., 197.

Herrick, William Curtis, biographical sketch, 1135.

Heryford, H.B., biographical sketch, 1103.

Hess, George N., 182.

Hess, John Calvin, biographical sketch, 477.

Hewitt, Asabeil, murderer, 309.

Hewlett, John (Chuck-a-luck Johnny), shot, 282.

Hickok children, murdered by Indians, 198-99.

Hickok, J., 240.

Hicks, Charles Wesley, biographical sketch, 553.

Hicks, Daniel T., biographical sketch, 525.

Hiebert, C.M., 1303.

High Rock Co., 76, trouble in flaming, 84-85.

Highway robberies, 102, 254, 257, 279-80, Chinese held up, 1877, 282; in eighties, 3l4-l5; at Garden Ranch, 1895, 332.

Hilgers, Frank, biographical sketch, 548.

Hilgers, William, biographical sketch, 548.

Hill, George W., biographical sketch, 868.

Hilton, Dan, 253-54.

Hilton, Roy, biographical sketch, 1294.

Hintz, Charles H., biographical sketch, 1141.

Hittel, Theodore H., on drifting quality of mining populations, 56; description of early miners' equipment, 58; description of character of pioneers, 95-96; account of thefts at Rich Bar, 150; account of anti-foreign trouble at Rich Bar, 161.

Hoad, John Henry, biographical sketch, 472.

Hoag, Mrs. J.A., drowned, 376-77.

Hobart, Charles Van Dusen, biographical sketch, 939.

Hobart, Rev. R., attended hanging, 157-58, 253.

Hobart, Randall, appointed County Judge, 148; Justice of the Peace, 149.

Hobart, W.W., as Deputy Sheriff, 159.

Hohl, L.J., 365.

Holden, John, killed Chinese, 314.

Holderhaum, Adam, arrested, 275.

Hollis, Joseph, on first Gridley Board of Trustees, 367.

Holmes, Robert P., biographical sketch, 569.

Holshlaw, Dr. B.F., murdered bride, 282-83.

Honcut, begun as mill community, 283; Big Bend Co. proposes irrigation project, 323; busy in eighties, 318; drilled for oil near, 371; fire, 1901, 378; known as Moore's Station, 238; on stage road, 104; S.P. Depot robbed, 380.

Honcut Creek, forms part of County boundary, 19; Indian tribes on, 25; land grant on, 38; Dicksburg on, 72.

Honey Lake and Humbug Valley Route, see Overland Trails in California.

Hong Di, Chinese assassin, 313.

Hooker, Major, stationed at Chico to receive Indians, 214.

Hooker Oak, located on Arroyo Chico land grant, 39, 179.

Hope, J.R., White Rock Justice of the Peace, 227.

Hopkins Creek, gold discovery as result of Gold Lake rush, 58.

Hops, 355.

Hoover, J.W., robbed, 256.

Hornung, Timothy F., biographical sketch, 1221; promoted South Feather Land and Water Co., 347; on Butte County Charter Committee, 376.

Horse racing, in fifties, 120-21; decides court case, 156.

Horses raised on land grants, 40; number in 1855, 168.

Hoskin, George, biographical sketch, 1275.

Hoskins, 67.

Hosler, Henry Solomon, biographical sketch, 554.

Hotels, at Adamstown, 99; at Inskip, 73; Peavine, 65-66; Thompsons Flat, 64, 66; Bird operated one, 120; Boston Ranch House, 340; description, 64; Chico Hotel fire, 1883, 334; Rich Bar, 64; Biggs, 334; Rich Bar Indiana House, 96; Beckwith Trail, 65; St. Nicholas Hotel, 112, 120; Shade Hotel, 67; Thermalito Hotel, 303, 337-38; U.S. Hotel, 334; Nimshew Hotel, 320; Villa Hotel at Palermo, 320.

Houses, described by E.W. Slater, 65.

Houseworth, Mrs. Minnie, accused in Fuller Will case, 333-34, 379.

Howard, Thomas Frank, biographical sketch, 1080.

Howells, J.M., developer of water power at Big Meadows, 348-51; Lake Almanor Dam, 351-52.

Howser, Jack, at bear hunt, 121.

Hubbard, W.T., Superintendent of Magalia Mine, 300.

Hubble, J., 265.

Hubbs, C.A., murdered, 314.

Huber, Enrique, land grant to, 175-76.

Hudson Bay Company, representatives in Sacramento Valley, 1825-1840, 36.

Hudson, Frank, murdered Lt. D.W. Livergood, 254.

Humboldt Road, see Chico and Humboldt Wagon Road.

Humbug Valley, attempt to secure new road via, 51; electric plant started, 353; expedition through in support of road claims, 183; on trail from Honey Lake to Oroville, 46; reputed origin of name, 57.

Humphrey, Clarence, biographical sketch, 953.

Humphreys, Isaac, introduced use of rocker, 77; believed to instruct Bidwell in gold washing, 42.

Hunt, Captain H.B., with Oroville Guards, 200, 211; on committee to remove Indians, 214; mentioned, 183, 209, 213-14.

Hunting, 121.

Huntley, Sir Henry, built arrastre, 90.

Huntoon, Oroville street named for, 120.

Hupp, George Grover, biographical sketch, 917.

Hupp, John, biographical sketch, 889.

Hurber, 67.

Hurdy-gurdy girls, 122-23.

Hurles, Smith H., biographical sketch, 437; kept Boston Ranch house, 244; Hurleton named for, 320.

Hurleton, formerly Boston Ranch, 314; named for Smith Hurles, 320.

Hutchins, Mrs. T.B., christened bridge, 308.

Hydraulic mining, see Mining, mining methods.

Hyland, L.C., opened store at Bangor, 1855, 72.

Hynes, Rev. James Joseph, biographical sketch, 856.

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Indian Bar, foreigners from Rich Bar at, 161; location, 162.

Indian Dredging Co., lost dredgers in flood, 1907, 1909, 377, 378.

Indian Reservations, first established, 1854, 189; meeting at Pence, 1863 to determine where to remove Indians to, 208-09; round up, 211-15.

Indian trouble, 185-226, on Chico-Honey Lake Road, 243.

Indian trouble in which whites were to blame, assaults on Indian women, 190; condemnation of assaults on Indian women, 187; estimates by Jacob Patterson and D.F. Crowder, 193; massacre at Forks of Butte, 188-89; George Rose hung for killing Indian, 187; supplying Indians with weapons and ammunition, 189, 196, 200-01.

Indian Valley, Indian tribe in, 25.

Indian Valley Railroad, Denver and Rio Grande, 342,

Indian Village, Michopdos camp on Big Chico Creek, 29.

Indiana House, at Rich Bar, 96.

Indians, CONCOW TRIBE (Konkaw), 25; account by J.A. Clark, 25; chief in trouble in Mesella Valley, 185-86; falsely blamed for murder of Lewis children, 210; meaning of name, 25; size of tribe, 35; conflict between valley and mountain Indians, 185; DEER CREEK, 188, 197, 210; R.A. Anderson published booklet "Fighting the Deer Creeks," 225; Ishi, last of, 386; description of Indian life on Chico Creek, 1855, by H.S. Abbott, 30; employed by miners, 38, 43, 46; food, 193-95; houses, 193; Kimshew Indians served as guides in Person murder, 187; MAIDU OR MAIDEH NATION, assembly house, description of, 26; dances, hunting, 26; music, 29; names of pioneers taken as tribe names by some, 31; religion, 28; tribes and their locales, 25; MICHOPDOS TRIBES (Bidwell Indians), attacked Bidwell Ranch, 1856, 188; Bidwell assisted them in pursuit of mountain Indians, 1850, 185; dances, 29; elected medicine man, 1883, 321; gambling, 30; houses, described by Mrs. Annie Bidwell, 29; hunting, fishing, 30; marriage customs and religion, 29; MILL CREEK, 197, 201, 210, 219; believed receiving aid from miners, 196, captured Lewis children, 200-08; imigrants harassed by, 46; Malo Jo, 188; Workman attack, 219-23; attacks on Indian women source of trouble, 100; Bidwell's treatment of Indians in Rancho Chico, 135-36; Cherokee founded by band of Cherokee Indians, 1853, 72; clothing, 135, 193, 195; pneumonia among, 193; return from reservation, 215; Powell, J.W., quoted on, 24ff, 31ff; sent to reservation, 209, 211-15; Tiger Indian trouble, 185; watch preparation of food at Peavine Hotel, 66; weapons of, 189; Wyandotte located by Wyandotte Indians, 1850, 72.

Industry, see lumbering.

Infirmary, completed; 1878, 296.

Ingraham, Reed Myers, biographical sketch, 954.

Inman, William C., biographical sketch, 1100.

Inskip, located in 1859 by Kelly, 73; described at its height, 73; rescue party sent out for Ward Brothers, 1872, 287.

Irrigation, Bidwell believed it successor to hydraulic mining, 302; effect on county agriculture, 355; foundation of some irrigation systems, 87, 171; irrigation of nineties., 322-23; irrigation in 1900-1918, 346-48, 352-58; irrigation projects, 304.

Irwin, Richard, 248.

Ishi, 386-87.

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Jacks Ranch, first sawmill in County, 93; suggested road to, 181; murder at, 277-78.

Jackson, William Peter, 363.

Jacobson, Henry Oscar, biographical sketch, 1111.

Jacobson, J.W., 319.

Jacoby, Harry, Oroville treasurer, 365, cut Cherokee diamonds, 370.

Jaggard, J.F., murdered, 283.

Jaggard's Mill, 200.

Jails, three jails filled, 1856, 99, 102; criticized by Grand Jury, 1889, 321; Hamilton City jail burned, 289; Hamilton City jail used as granary, 63; jail facilities, 161; new buildings, 1904, 359; plans and taxes for jail at Hamilton, 144-45; reported insecure, 295.

James, Thomas Morgan, biographical sketch, 1091.

James, William, biographical sketch, 485.

James, William H., biographical sketch, 934.

Japanese, anti-Japanese meeting, 336.

Jasper, O.W., on Oroville Levee commission, 365.

Jeffries, Tom, fired on crowd, 288.

Jenkins, Austin, biographical sketch, 1060.

Jenkins, T.J., elected County Recorder, 141.

Jensen, George N., murdered, 252-53.

Jessee, Norval C., biographical sketch, 1300.

Joe Bowers, song of, 126-27.

Johns, E.B., biographical sketch, 1175.

Johnson, Benjamin Farland, Jr., biographical sketch, 1245.

Johnson, David, 233.

Johnson, Dick, acquitted, 383.

Johnson, H.T., Biggs City Marshal, 367.

Johnson, William, biographical sketch, 1054.

Johnson, William R., biographical sketch, 1215.

Johnston, Nathaniel Lyon, biographical sketch,, 1241.

Jones, Major A.F., biographical sketch, 441; associated with Hammon, 330; associated with purchase of Miocene Ditch, 302-03; County seat petition, 372; in California Northern Railroad foreclosure, 307; in Odd Fellows Home transaction, 337; introduced senate bill to establish Normal School, 316; interested in Chico Electric Street Railroad, 362; mentioned, 317; on Oroville Board of Education; 365; rescued marooned men, 319; led 1892 fight against county division, 331.

Jones, David, convicted of manslaughter, 281.

Jones, David Daniel, biographical sketch, 1207.

Jones, E.H., biographical sketch, 916.

Jones, George Foster, biographical sketch, 868; district attorney in Helen Rumball case, 381; mentioned, 240, 376.

Jones, George W., 376.

Jones, H.T., arrested, 275.

Jones, Harry Campbell, biographical sketch, 1284.

Jones, Josiah Lewellyn, biographical sketch, 1206.

Jones, Peter, 331.

Jones, Richard Henry, biographical sketch, 746.

Jones, Shadrack, killed, 314.

Jones Claim, gold production of, 76.

Judicial System, see Butte County-Judicial System.

Judson, Egbert, 267.

Junction, mining companies at, 82; anti-foreign troubles 162; suggested road through, 181-82.

Junction Claim, description of flume at, 80-81; location, 82; episode involving, 85; gold production, 76.

Justices of the Peace, list of early, 149.

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Karsner, James H., M.D., biographical sketch, 626.

Karsner, Mrs. Minerva M., biographical sketch, 626.

Kayser, Sebastian, land grant to, 39, 179; Llano Seco Rancho, 179.

Keath, G.A., murdered E.G. Walker, 281.

Keddie, A.W., at opening of Western Pacific, 367; describes route of Beckwith Trail, 50-51; Feather River road route recommended by Keddie, 245; made resurvey of Butte-Plumas line, 296; surveyed railroad route up Feather River, 249, 330.

Keefer, Claude A., biographical sketch, 927.

Keefer, James L., biographical sketch, 927; established Keefer's Station, 1851, 168; helped Indians, 1855, 195; one of his teamsters murdered by Indians, 198.

Keefer, William, biographical sketch, 834.

Keefer's Station, established by James L. Keefer, 168.

Keifer, Jacob Frank, biographical sketch, 1279.

Keitle, John H., biographical sketch, 1042.

Kellerman, Albert Frederick, biographical sketch, 957.

Kellom, Miss Mabel A., D.D., biographical sketch, 1254.

Kelly, located Inskip, 1859, 73.

Kelly, Thomas J., biographical sketch, 1167.

Kempf, George F., biographical sketch, 1282.

Kennedy, Mrs. Cora W., biographical sketch, 820.

Kennedy, Guy Reynolds, biographical sketch, 644; defense attorney in Rumball case, 381; defense attorney in Slaughter case, 382; county seat fight, 371-72.

Kennedy, John Reynolds, biographical sketch, 819.

Kennedy, Joseph John, biographical sketch, 879.

Kerns, Thaddeus, killed in aeroplane accident, 391.

Kerr, J.M., elected County treasurer, 141.

Kesselring, George A., biographical sketch, 697.

Kesterson, Charles W., biographical sketch, 1314.

Ketchum, I.R., 277.

Keyes, Chitty C., biographical sketch, 780.

Kimball, J., 158.

Kimbrell, Supervisor J.P., killed, 383; successor appointed, 389.

Kimmel, Deputy Sheriff, 163.

Kimshew Township, school district formed, 116.

Kimshu Creek (Kimshew), meaning of name, 25; six grizzly captured, 121.

King, John F., biographical sketch, 1032.

King, Michael J., biographical sketch, 1032.

King, W.J., murdered, 309.

King, William J., D.D.S., biographical sketch, 1247.

Kluegal, Mrs. H.A., suggested mosquito abatement, 385.

Knotwell, Mrs. Nettie M., biographical sketch, 1178.

Knowles, jailer at Noaks lynching, 310.

Knox, Mr., 216.

Konkau tribe, see Indians-Concow tribe.

Korn, Morris, biographical sketch, 1122.

Korn, Solomon, biographical sketch, 929.

Kosh, William, 331.

Kringle, Reg, arrested, 312.

Krusick, Joseph, biographical sketch, 670.

Kuchemeister, William, on Oroville Board of Trustees, 366.

Kuhn, John William, biographical sketch, 1164.

Kusel, C.E. and Emile, planted olive grove, 304; erected olive oil factory, 323; C.E., on first Board of Trustees, Oroville, 365-366; biographical sketch, 1300.

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La Frambois, Michael, named Sutter Buttes, then called Picachos, 36.

Lake Almanor, owned by Great Western Power Co., 347; Big Meadows Project, 349-51; construction of dam, 351-52.

Lamson, Gertrude, in Slaughter case, 382-83.

Land Grants, Aguas Frias or Pratt grant to Salvador Osio, 39, 178. developed by O.H. Pratt, 290; ARROYO CHICO GRANT, to William Dickey, Saunders and Yates, 38-39, 173, 179, purchased by Bidwell, 38, 132, 172; Boga-Larkin grant to Charles William Flugge, 38, 179; Bosquejo grant to Peter Lassen, 38-39, 172, 180; Esquon grant to Samuel Neal and David Dutton, 38-39, 172, 180; Farwell grant to Edward A. Farwell and Thomas Fallon, 38-39, 172, 179; Fernandez grant to Dionisio and Maceimo Fernandez, 40, 178; Huber grant located on, by Charles Roether, 38, 172; Llano Seco or Parrott grant to Sebastian Kayser, 178, 180; Marshall grant to James Marshall, later purchased by James Hensley, 38, 172; SUTTER GRANT, 178; Yatestown on northern limit, 63; uncertainty of titles to, 169, 171-180; titles to Cambuston, Huber, Hensley, and Nye grants not confirmed, 173; North California account of title situation, 173-76; title to grants claimed under General Land Title, 1884, rejected by U. S., 173; squatters on, 176-78.

Land Values, in 1863, 181; in 1877, 295; in eighties, 305.

Landis, Dr. A.J., relationship to Fuller Will case, 333-34, 379-80; biographical sketch, 1106.

Lane, Mrs. Kate Cummins, biographical sketch, 940.

Lange, William, biographical sketch, 1292.

Langwith, Mrs. Josephine, biographical sketch, 941.

Lantz, John D. and Annie H., biographical sketch, 682.

La Porte, telephone line to Oroville, 1879, 296.

Larkin, Thomas O., land grant, title to, 179.

Larsen, George, murdered, 384.

Larson, Henry E., biographical sketch, 1045.

Las Plumas, Delaney home dynamited, 384.

Lassen, Peter, Bosquejo land grant, 38-39, 172, 180; emigrants appropriated food from, 53; Bidwell obtained flour from, 42; Lassen Horn route via Lassen Ranch, 46; favored Noble's Pass as rail route, 183.

Lassen Horn Route, see Overland trails in California-Lassen Trail.

Lausen, H.D., appointed county clerk, 339.

Lauterio, Edward J., biographical sketch, 1294.

Lava beds, mining, 269-70.

Law, James S., read Declaration of Independence at first Fourth of July celebration in Ophir, 123; co-owner of first store in Oroville, 119.

Lawler, Edward, biographical sketch., 1048.

Lawson Horn Route, see Overland Trails in California-Lassen Horn Route.

Leach, A.M., acquired timber holdings, 283; mentioned, 318, 320.

Le Ballister, James George, biographical sketch, 1034.

Lee, Levi W., biographical sketch, 1137.

Lee, T.C., on Oroville Board of Trustees, 366.

Leeper, John F., biographical sketch., 698.

Legalley, Mrs. and Miss Stell, drowned, 377.

Leggett, J.H., had water appropriation for power purposes, 347; on Western Pacific Right of Way Committee in Oroville, 366.

Leininger, Mrs. America Ray, biographical sketch, 444.

Leininger, George, biographical sketch, 1075.

Lemm Ranch, massacre of Chinese at, 274-75.

Lemmon, Andrew Jackson, biographical sketch, 1225.

Lemmon, W.W., murdered, 332.

Lemmons, I., 199.

Leonard, John, passed near concealed Lewis children, 202-03.

Leonard, John P., Justice of the Peace and Post Master of Oroville, 75; at Cape Claim, 75.

Leonard, Raymond Anthony, biographical sketch, 833; district attorney in Slaughter case, 382-83; interested in Olive Products Co., 355.

Leonard, W.L., on Oroville Board of Education, 365.

Letcher, Mrs. Kathrina, biographical sketch, 693.

Lewis, Arthur, accused in Helen Rumball case, 381-82.

Lewis, Edward James, biographical sketch, 895.

Lewis, J.E.N., active in 1852 election, 148; in Bidwell Bar Bridge controversy, 182; attorney in railroad case, 251; mentioned, 159, 182.

Lewis, James Albert, biographical sketch, 1198.

Lewis Children, death of Johnny and Jimmy and escape of Arenia, Thankful, 200-08.

Library, County Free Library established, 1913, 360-61; Senator George Perkins gave building for public library purposes, 389.

Lightner, Fred, willed money for fire engine, 363.

Lincoln, Abraham, election returns in Butte County, 233-34; news received of assassination, 236.

Lincoln, C.G., editor North Californian, 118, 120; Oroville street named for, 120.

Linden., A.F., robbed, 255.

Lindsey, William, 196.

Linn, W. Birney, biographical sketch, 1119.

Little, David W., biographical sketch, 1041.

Little, Richard, murderer and suicide, 332.

Livergood, Lt. D.N., murdered, 254.

Livestock; number in 1855, 168.

Lloyd, R., 319.

Locey, Alex C., biographical sketch, 774.

Locey, Archie Harvey, biographical sketch, 1001.

Locey, Henry Moore, biographical sketch, 1159.

Locher, manufactured little giant cannon, 246.

Lockerman, Mrs. Adelia, biographical sketch, 1136.

Logan, J.M., murdered, 277.

Logan, James C., highway project, 292.

Logue, J. Frank, biographical sketch, 1084.

Lomo, most of precinct, went to Tehama by re-survey, 286.

"Long Tom,'' see Mining Methods.

Longmore, 67, 183.

Long's Bar, absence of theft at, 101; "April Fools" election, 139-40; attempt to change river channel, 85; decline began, 1852, 69; described by Wells and Chambers, 68-69; discovery of gold at, 69, 119; established by Long Brothers, 1849, 68; ferry established at, 110; ferry purchased by Perkins, 293; gambling at, 97, 99; head dam of Golden Gate Channel Mining Company at, 327; Judge C.F. Lott reached, 44; mining methods at, 77; most of first county officials from, 141; Nebraska Company at, 82; only one safe for holding gold, 102; polling place in territorial election, 137; preachers at, 98-99.

Loomis, Frank M., biographical sketch, 1180.

Looney, E. D., convicted of manslaughter, 313.

Looney, Mrs. Mattie A., biographical sketch, 750.

Losee, Herbert, biographical sketch, 1299.

Losee, Talmage E., biographical sketch, 1297.

Lott, Judge Charles Fayett, biographical sketch, 411; account of attempt to change river channel at Long's Bar, 85; account of preacher at Adamstown, 98-99; arrived in 1849, 40; arrived via Lassen Trail, 46; arrived in party with Sexton and Brown, 113; comment on early administration of justice, 154-55; delivered first Fourth of July oration in Ophir, 123; director of Oroville Water & Power, 338; estimate of early attitude of Indians, 185; in Oroville Citrus Association, 303; mined at Long's Bar, 44; ranch bordered Esquon grant, 39; St. Louis University graduate, 95; statement of cost of provisions in '49, 113; statement on mining methods at Long's Bar, 77.

Love, Robert, had pack mules, 108.

Lovelock, located by George Lovelock, 73.

Lowdin, described express company race, 107.

Lucas, Mrs. Ellen, biographical sketch, 1074.

Lucas, John H., biographical sketch, 873.

Lucas, Thomas J., biographical sketch, 1226.

Lumbering, Dry Creek Mills, 71; east of Chico, 242; first sawmill, at Jack's Ranch, 93; flume companies, 283-84; in Clipper Mills Station, 318; in 1855, 93; Jason Springer mill burned, 334; lumbering, 1900-1918, 359; Moore's Station planing mill burned, 320; number of sawmills, 1855, 168; Peavine sawmill, 93; second sawmill at Berry Creek, 93; state of industry, 1878, 284; Sierra Lumber Company mill and yards burned, 378; statement on timber, 1858, 169; Swayne Lumber Company, 88, 359; Truckee Lumber Company, 345-46, 359.

Lumbert Brothers,opened store at Bangor, 1855, 72.

Lund, Miss Mattie R., biographical sketch, 1000.

Lunt, Mrs. Frances, biographical sketch, 1085.

Lusk, F. C., 316-18; biographical sketch, 557.

Lutz, Charles, biographical sketch, 1309.

Lynch, Frank Edward, biographical sketch, 1086.

Lynch, George H., 209.

Lynch, James, biographical sketch, 443.

Lynch, William P., 376; biographical sketch, 853; claim for deputies salaries, 339.

Lynchburg, on present site of Oro-Vista, 69, 145; described by Butte Record, 69.

Lynchings, lynch law, 149-51; lynching halted, 159-63; in seventies, 277-78; lynching of Tom Noaks, 309-10; Concow chief hung, 186; Hong Di lynched, 313.

Lyons, George, child burned to death, 320.

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McBride, James F., 215.

McCallan, William, children lost, 296.

McCallum, Duncan C., biographical sketch, 329; instrumental in building Butte County Canal, 346-47; promoted Feather River Company, 347.

McCarty, Joseph, 294.

McCorkle, J.W., opened store at Long's Bar with Dr. Smith, 69; qualified as district attorney-elect and appointed district judge, 148; presided in Harper theft case, 152; elected district attorney, 141.

McCoy, Benjamin Lincoln, biographical sketch, 486; on Oroville Levee Commission, 365; deputized to verify county seat petition, 371-72; on redistricting county, 373.

McCreary, Sam, 257.

McDaniel, Marion Allen, biographical sketch, 865.

McDaniel, Miss Susan, murder, 276-77.

McDaniel, Thomas, 209, 211, 213-14.

McDaniels, Thomas, first Cherokee postmaster, 104.

McDermott, S., 183.

McDonald, Robert, murdered, 281.

McFall, Liston, 75.

McGann, James, "Act of Reprisal," 336-37.

McGee, Joseph, 335.

McGee, Milton, convicted, 312; term commuted, 338.

McHardy, Alexander, biographical sketch, 692.

McIntosh, L.H., 316-18.

McIntosh, Perry, 196.

McIntosh, William, lost life in fire, 320.

McKee, Samuel, biographical sketch, 866.

McKenzie, Kenneth, biographical sketch, 816.

McKnight, John H., biographical sketch, 1186.

McKnight, George, 277.

McLaughlin, Deputy Sheriff, 163,

McLaughlin, Frank, arrived in Butte County, 297; constructed power plant, 338; in Odd Fellows Home transaction, 337; instrumental in sale of Miocene Ditch, 302-03; planted Rancho Golden, 326; secured control of Banner Mine, 328; promotional activities, 297-99, 326-27; death of, 389.

McLennan, Charles Wallace, biographical sketch, 654.

McMillan, George Washington, biographical sketch, 642.

McNamee, owned saloon on Montgomery St., 99.

McPherson, Ernest I., biographical sketch, 1290.

McRae, Daniel, biographical sketch, 623.

McRae, Duncan, biographical sketch, 623.

Machamer, James K.P., biographical sketch, 804.

Mack, William Edwards, M.D., biographical sketch, 810, planted olives, 339.

Mackie, W.W., 356.

Macy, L.D., biographical sketch, 1161.

Macy, Norman K., biographical sketch, 1255.

Madden, M., 60-62.

Magalia, formerly Dogtown, 231; naming of, 260; Magalia Dam, 348; rainfall, 1909, 390.

Magalia Mine, yield in eighties, 300.

Magalia Ridge, settling of, 73; finding of largest Butte County gold nugget, 74; Mineral Slide Mine, 298; renewed interest in mining in eighties, 300; reopening of drift mines, 328; Diamond Match Company development on, 341.

Maher, Mike, found first diamond, Cherokee, 369-70.

Mahon, A.H., biographical sketch, 1289.

Mahoney, J., 275.

Maideh, see Indians.

Maidu, see Indians.

Mail, see Postal Service.

Malloy, Henry, biographical sketch, 1235.

Malo Jo, bad Indian, 188.

Mandeville, J.C., 240, 242.

Mansfield, George C., chairman Rep. Co. Central Commission, 375; prepared mosquito abatement legislation, 385-86; biographical sketch, 671.

Mansfield, Isaac Le Roy, M.D., biographical sketch, 825.

Marchella, Rocco, shot, 281.

Marks, Albert J., biographical sketch, 1293.

Marquis, G.G., 215.

Marriage, first ceremony in Butte County, 97; first marriage license, 262.

Marselus, Edwin D., biographical sketch, 1181.

Marshall, James, land grant to, 38, 172; discovery of gold, 41.

Marshall, William Henry, biographical sketch, 1209.

Martin, D.G., first Brush Creek postmaster, 104.

Martin, Mrs. Emily, 383.

Martin, J.C., 240.

Martin, Oscar F., biographical sketch, 545.

Martinsburgh, 261.

Marvis, Edward, lost life, 320.

Marysville, Beckwourth sought subscriptions for development of Beckwourth Trail, 48-49; burned, 49; Express Company junction, 104-06; mail to Butte County via, 104-05; on Northern Electric Railroad, 345; opposed to declaring Feather Rivet navigable, 112-13, 246-48; rivalry with Oroville over proposed Honey Lake road, 183; stages to Chico, 240; steamer connections at, 109.

Mason, Albert, murdered, 332.

Mason, C.C., 316.

Mason, S.T., biographical sketch, 1251.

Masons, Masonic meeting, 116-17; lodge in Chico, 241; laid Normal School corner-stone, 317.

Mathews, Fred, 363.

Matkin, C.E., biographical sketch, 1329.

Matlock, John, biographical sketch, 1144.

Matteson, E.E., developed monitor in hydraulic mining, 89.

Matthews, William Frederick, biographical sketch, 1260.

Maxwell, Levi H., biographical sketch, 1266.

Meacham, Joel, biographical sketch, 608.

Meacham, Joseph, foiled stage robbery, 280.

Mead, George, biographical sketch, 1151.

Mead, L.H., 303.

Meadow Valley, on Beckwith Trail, 51.

Meadow Valley House, sheltered miners overnight, December, 1852, 60.

Meakins, John William, biographical sketch, 1234.

Mealey, Samuel A., biographical sketch, 1242.

Meek, Hon. B.B., elisor in Helen Rumball case, 382; introduced mosquito abatement legislation to assembly, 385; interested in Olive Product Company, 355; county charter committee, 376; biographical sketch, 659.

Meeker, Rev. George T., biographical sketch, 814.

Meeker's Flat, 76.

Meradith, George R., biographical sketch, 1179.

Merithew, Mr., 216, 221.

Merrimac, formerly Peavine, 65; hotel conducted by husband of Mrs. Sarah Whipple, 65; timber acquired by Truckee Lumber Co., 345.

Mery, Michael L., 306; biographical sketch, 592.

Messila Valley, Pence settles in, 185; Thomas Morgan house raided by Indians, 216; school organized, 115.

Messinger, John G., biographical sketch, 860.

Messinger, Reuben H., biographical sketch, 930.

Meteor, on Table Mountain, 336.

Mexican Land Grants, see Land Grants.

Mexican War, peace declared, 137.

Meyerhoffer, Orvar, in 1907 flood, 377.

Meysenberg, O.W., 352.

Micheltorena, Governor, issued General Land Title, 1844, 173; land grants by, 38-40, 173-76, 178-79, 180; Bidwell informed of coming insurrection, 131; brought ambulance from Mexico, 41.

Michopdos tribe, see Indians-Michopdos tribe.

Middletown, also known as Centerville, 69; approximately on site of present Oroville S.P. Depot, 69.

Miles, mayor of Marysville, 1850-51, 48-49.

Mill Creek, on Lassen Trail, 46.

Mill Creek Indians, see Indians-Mill Greek.

Miller, C.H., Gridley City marshal, 367.

Miller, Elmer I., A.M., Ph.D., 376, biographical sketch, 574.

Miller, F.B., 272.

Miller, F.W., biographical sketch, 650.

Miller, Fred W., murdered, 312.

Miller, George, 306, 318.

Miller, George O., biographical sketch, 1172.

Miller, Glen W., appointed to Board of Supervisors, 389.

Miller, Joe, attacked by Indians, 220.

Miller, Joseph, shot and wounded, 219; biographical sketch, 1126.

Miller, Wendel J., biographical sketch, 479.

Miller, Wendell, 220.

Miller Ranch, 230.

Miner, Tom, 206.

Mineral claims, contest over, 273.

Miners, California settlers in '48, 45; character and characteristics of, 95-103; deposited gold dust in safe at Long's Bar, 69; described by Hittell, 95-96; early miners' ignorance of mineralogy, 78-79; equipment, 58; estimate of distribution and their gold production, 1850, 73; hardships in winter of 1852-53, 58-62; life in Feather River mining camp, 54-56; nationality of in 1849, 44-45; objected to sale of salve as butter, 114; tax on foreign miners, 162-64; wages, late fifties, 86.

Miners' courts, 149-51, 159.

Miners' Ranch, dance at, 122; copper claims at, 263; proposed irrigation project, 323; on stage road, 109; proposed road, 182.

Mining, (see also Mining methods), anti-debris legislation, 268-69; at Oroville, 1856-57, 88-89; Big Bend Tunnel, 299; Clean-ups, 1874-76, 300-01; diamonds found in, 370; trouble at High Rock, 84-85; decline after 1857, 92; difficulty of obtaining water away from streams, 87; drift mining, 328; drift mining, renewed interest in, 1880, 300; drifting population of mining communities, 56; during sixties, 262-63; during seventies, 267-73; during eighties, 297-302; during nineties, 326-30; during 1900-1918, 368-71; in lava beds, 269-70; later methods, 79-93; methods in 1848-49, 76-78; on Feather River, 1848, 42-43, 73; season average, five months, 73; Spring Valley Mine, 267-69.

Mining, coal, 263.

Mining camps, described by Shirley, 64; listed and described, 67-73; names of mining camps in Concow Township, 71; listed, 106.

Mining companies, listed by Butte Record, 1855, 81-82.

Mining laws, establishment of early rules, 93; U.S. Mining Law of 1872, 93-94; mining laws of Bidwell Bar district, 94-95.

Mining methods, at Spring Valley Mines, Cherokee, 267-69, 297; described by Henry E. Vail, 89; in Butte County, 80-89; sluice invented by A. Chabot, 80-89; mining convention, 327; "Long Tom," 79-80; Monitor developed by Matteson, 89; pan first used, 77; quartz mining, 90-92; rocker, first use of, 77; diverting river channel, 76-93; dredger (first crude), 85; development of dredgers, 272-73, 301; dry digging, 87-88; first stamp mills, 91, 301; flumes, 80-85, 271-72; hydraulic mining, agitation against, 297-98; anti-debris legislation 268-69; anti-debris meeting, Sacramento, 1909, 368; sluice, 80; tunnel mining, 92; wing dam, 77, 80, 86, 272.

Mining towns, mushroom growth and disappearance of, 63-64; description of, 64, naming and laying out of Diamondville described, 63-73; social conditions living, fifties, 95-103; listed, 106.

Miocene Ditch, on Table Mountain, 298, purchased, 302.

Miocene Mine, enjoined, 298; promoted by McLaughlin, 298; land purchased by U.S. Diamond Mining Company, 369.

Mitchell, E.J., Oroville City Clerk, 365.

Mitchell, James Evans, biographical sketch, 899.

Mitchell, "Rattling Jack," 278.

Mix, John Maxson, biographical sketch, 742.

Moak, Miss Eva, killed, 384.

Moak, Jacob, biographical sketch, 416.

Moak, Sim, Indian fighter, account of Indian attack on Workman house, 219-23; account of Good's death, 223-25; in posse searching for Indians who killed Lewis children, 207-08.

Moesch, F.S., Gridley City Clerk, 367.

Moguls, 162.

Moir, Harry S., biographical sketch, 733.

Money, see Currency.

Montezuma claim, description of flume, 80-81; location, 82.

Montgomery, General J.W.B., 316-18; biographical sketch, 579.

Montgomery, John Newton, 240; biographical sketch, 1237.

Moody, Mrs., encounter with Indians, 201.

Mooney, Constable of Wyandotte, 150.

Moore, Charles A., 376; biographical sketch, 1002.

Moore, Dr. J.G., 213-14.

Moore, James Franklin, biographical sketch, 1252.

Moore, John, 213-14, found diamond at Cherokee, 369.

Moore, John, S., murdered, 312-13.

Moore, Robert, in 1907 flood, 377.

Moore, Robert A., account of Hamilton City debates, 123; describes early methods of agriculture, 180; operated ferry at Hamilton., 110; quoted on stage runs through Hamilton, 109-10; related horse racing through Hamilton, 120; son of Robert B., 180; statement of adjournment of court for refreshment, 156.

Moore, Robert B., used County jail at Hamilton for granary, 63; chairman first Board of Supervisors, 146; property claim, 176; co-purchase of part of Fernandez grant, 174, 177, 180.

Moore, W.L., rescued Eunice Moore, 279.

Moore's Station, now Honcut, 283; land values', 305; band furnished music for bridge opening, 308; Challenge mills supplying lumber to, burned, 320.

Mooretown, J.S. Moore, founder, murdered, 312-13, 384.

Moran, John W., biographical sketch, 1220.

Morehead, James Franklin., biographical sketch, 519.

Moreland, John, biographical sketch, 1040.

Morgan, A.W., Justice of the Peace, 149.

Morgan, Daniel C., biographical sketch, 1124.

Morgan, Jenkin, 303; biographical sketch, 1134.

Morgan, Thomas, 216.

Morgan, W., 319.

Morgan, William, absconded while county treasurer, 315-16.

Morgue, Henry C., biographical sketch, 1041.

Morquis, Mrs., at Spanishtown, 71.

Morris, Jake, 257.

Morris Ravine, named for Morris of Neal Ranch, 44, 72; Joseph Brown heads for, 53, 71-78; Davis of Lassen Ranch mined at, 43; water boy bound and left in sun, 281; wing-dam at mouth of gulch, 327; Old Glory mine in, 383; murder at, 384.

Morrison, Ira Ripley, biographical sketch, 994.

Morse, D.N., justice with county judge, 149.

Morse, Frank, Sr., driver of Forbestown stage during robbery, 280.

Morse, George P., 318; biographical sketch, 1078.

Morton, Austin Earl, biographical sketch, 516.

Morton, Samuel Jose, biographical sketch, 649.

Mosquito Abatement District, 385-86.

Mosquito Gulch and Creek, quartz mining at, 90; Gold Bank Mine, 328.

Mother Orange Tree, 170-71.

Mt. Ida Packing Co., (Olive Products Company), 355-56.

Mt. Ida Ranch, first commercial olive planting, 304.

Mountain House, on Beckwith Trail, 51; stop for passenger trains of mules, 183; C.H. Person murdered near by Indians, 187; Captain Singer stopped by snow, 105; development of Oroville-Quincy Road, 182.

Mowry, George B., grand jury foreman on Fuller Will case, 333.

Mud Creek, treasure hunt, 293; school district formed, 116; grasshopper hunt near, 195; Edward Bryson home on, 196.

Mullen, Henry, convicted of murder of John S. Moore, 313.

Mullen, Mrs. Lizzie, killed at Mooretown, 384.

Mullen, Samuel, 237.

Mullen, William, 219.

Mullin, Alfred, biographical sketch, 976,

Mullings, freed of murder charge, 281.

Mullings, William, 384.

Munjar, Peter, biographical sketch, 918.

Murphy, Daniel, murdered, 282.

Murphy, Dennis John, biographical sketch, 555.

Murphy, Denny, biographical sketch, 839.

Musselman, A.C., biographical sketch, 1101.

Myer, Judge, Oroville street named after, 120.

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Nance, Mr., 71.

Nance Canyon, 203,

Nancy Canyon, treasure hunt in 1890, 335.

Nash, Henry William, biographical sketch, 1090.

National Guard of California, 335, 390; called to Wheatland, 391; George O. Perkins made captain, 293.

Natomas Consolidated of California, property owned by, 328; purchased property of Valley Contracting Company, 358-59.

Neal, Samuel, mined at Adams Bar or Adamstown on Feather River, 43; Esquon land grant to, 39, 172, 180; his horse raced at Hamilton, 120; home polling place in territorial election, 137; grain on land grant, 40.

Neally, Assemblyman, hung in effigy, 287.

Nelson, A.D., Nelson named for, 265.

Nelson, Charles Leonard, biographical sketch, 458.

Nelson, Ed, robbed of express, 315.

Nelson, John, charged with murder, 282.

Nelson, wheat growing introduced, 239; surveyed by California and Oregon Railroad, 265; origin of name, 265; depot robbed, 315; hurricane struck, 1882, 321; proposed railroad to connect with Oroville, 389.

Nelson Creek; gold discovery as result of Gold Lake rush, 58.

Nelson Point, pack trains almost reach in winter, 1852-53, 59; party of twelve attempt to leave, 62.

Nesbit, J.D., lost life, 379.

Nesbit, William, 209.

Neubarth, August L., biographical sketch, 724.

Nevins, Bill, sold mine to W.W. Stow, 92.

New Salem, polling place in territorial election, 137.

Newcomb, A.B., 146.

Newspapers, during fifties, 117-18, 120; during sixties, 261; during seventies, 289; Butte County Press, (Chico), 261; Butte County Register, 289; BUTTE RECORD: first paper in Butte County, 117-18; changed from daily to weekly, 1852, 92-93, 118; continued at Oroville in sixties, 261; official place of publication moved to Chico, 1874, 289; Chico Index, 261; Chico Semi-Weekly Review, issued by W. Chamber; 289; CHICO ENTERPRISE, published reminiscences of D.F. Crowder, 193-96; contained Moaks account of Hi Good's death, 223-25; damaged by fire; 334; DAILY ALTA CALIFORNIAN, quoted on founding of Oroville, 63-64; Gridley Herald, C. N. Reed, publisher, 320; OROVILLE MERCURY, in l873, 289; Edward B. Price, editor, 331; W.A. Beard, editor, 338; OROVILLE REGISTER, printed list of pioneers, 1885, 51-52; formerly Butte County Register, 289; purchased by S.S. Boynton, 1883, 302; OROVILLE UNION, account of Lewis children's death, 200-01; NORTH CALIFORNIAN, description of fluming operations, 80-81; description of tunnel operations, in Table Mountain, 92; description of mining at Rancheria, 90; history of its publication, 118; account of land grant title situation, 172; description of Spanish town, 1856, 71; NORTHERN ENTERPRISE, published by W.N. DeHaven, 261; published by Dr. William P. Tilden, 289; absorbed Chico Semi-Weekly Review, 289; OROVILLE WEEKLY UNION, established in sixties, ceased with death of editor, Mr. Wentworth, 261; PLACER TIMES, estimate distribution of miners and their gold production, 1850, 73-74.

Niagara Claim, location, 82; episode involving, 85.

Nicholl Brothers, biographical sketch, 594.

Nichols, A.L., 316, 318.

Nichols, George, 197.

Nichols, Kelcy Grant, biographical sketch, 1185.

Nichols, "Mother," washed for county officers at Hamilton, 63; owned house where court of sessions held first meeting, 144.

Nickerson, Charles J., operated stamp mills, 92.

Nielsen, Niels Andersen, biographical sketch, 1249.

Nimshew, outlaws captured near, 283; hotel burned, 320.

Nimshu, meaning of name, 25.

Nisbet, James Goldie, biographical sketch, 942.

Noaks, Tom, lynching of, 309-10.

Noble's Pass, location, 242; Chico favored as rail route, 183.

Noblet, James Ira, biographical sketch, 1153.

Nord, laid out by Colby, 1870, 265; Hewlett shot, 1877, 282; Charles Pond dies at, 338; train wreck, 1897, 340; Civil War-trouble near, 227.

Normal school, see Chico State Normal School.

Norman, J.C., 240.

Norris, John, see Norris, Samuel J.

Norris, Samuel J., sent by Denver & Rio Grande as "John Norris" to locate railroad, 342; acquired McCallum and Gray interests in Feather River Canal Company, 347.

Norse, Mr., held Mason meeting, 116-17.

North California Mining Company, organized 341-42; failed to secure patents on claims, 371.

Northern California Power Company, entered Chico field, 353.

Northern Electric, construction of, 345; became Sacramento & Northern Railroad, 345; bridge washed out, 1907, 377.

Northgraves, William prospected with Bidwell, 42; on Farwell Grant, 40; litigation over ranch, 318.

Norton, John P., at Cape claim, 75.

Nourse, George F., 266.

Nugent, Michael, biographical sketch, 1100.

Nugent, Richard J., biographical sketch, 1207.

Num You, killed, 309.

Nye, Michael, killed by Indians, 185.

Nye's Ranch, 244, 247.

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Oak Tree Document, see Spanish manuscript.

Oakdale, pump set at, 363.

Oberweis, Peter, biographical sketch, 1229.

O'Brien, F.J., 318.

O'Connor, James, killed, 340.

Odd Fellows Hall, at Forbestown, 70.

Odd Fellows Home, 337-38; hospital burned, 378.

O'Donnell, May, burned in Cherokee, 320.

Ohio Claim, location, 82; gold production, 76; episode involving, 85.

Oil excitement, 370-71.

Old Sailor Claim, wing-dam at, 81; river channel diverted, 85.

Olive Products Company, 355-56.

Oliver, C.A., 318.

Oliver, Emery, on Oroville Levee Commission, 365.

Olives, first commercial plantings, 304; oil factories, 323; Ehmann Olive Company beginning, 323-26; increased plantings, 326, 355; first planting at Paradise by Dr. Mack, 339; processing, 355; Butte leading county in production, 404; Bidwell a pioneer in oil making, 134.

Olsen, Charles, murdered Logan and lynched, 277-78.

O'Meara, 67.

O'Neill, Charles, biographical sketch, 1131.

Onion Valley, miners wintered in, 59; overnight stop by miners, 62.

Onstott, Jacob A., biographical sketch, 990.

Ophir, (see also Oroville), base line through determined, 175; described by Butte Record, 68; first Fourth of July, 123; first settlement, October, 1849, 68; location, 63; renamed Oroville, 67-68; school established, 1853, 115; school, size of in 1854, 115; strike at White Rock nearly depopulated, 68.

Ora Vista, on former site of Lynchburg, 69, 145.

Oranges, Mother Orange Tree, 170-71, 240; first commercial planting, 171; increased attention to in seventies, 296; Oroville Citrus Association formed, 302-03; citrus fairs, 303, 326.

Ord, Pacificus, purchase of part of Fernandez grant, 177.

Ord Rancho, bordered Fernandez grant, 40, 172.

Order of Caucasians, 275-76.

Oregon, miners from, 44.

Oregon City, origin of name, 44; started by Oregon emigrants, 1849, 72; quartz mining started, 1851, 72; townsite laid out by Colonel Derrick, 1856, 72; school established, 1858, 115.

Oregon Company, 37.

Oregon Creek, W.D. Vantine kept store, 191; Captain Yuba at store, 191.

Oregon Gulch, mail service to Marysville, 104; William Reese murdered, 281; Banner Mine, 91.

Oregon Township, first quartz mines in County, 90; Constable Duret captured maniac, 293-94.

Orloff, railroad station name, later changed to Paradise, 368.

Oro, school established in 1853, 115; size of school in 1854, 115.

Oro Electric Corporation, 353.

Oroville, actors playing in, 124; affected by decline in mining, 302; Ah Ping stabbed, 282; American Institute of Mining Engineers visit, 1899, 340; anti-gambling laws adopted, 390; anti-hydraulicking, attempt to organize association, 298; anti-saloon agitation, 374; assassins in, eighties, 312; bank robbed, 381; birth of, and early growth, 119-20; brick industry, 295; bridge span collapsed, 1904, 379; Oroville Free Bridge, 291-92; washed out, 1907, 359; bull and bear fights, 121; cache of gold coins discovered, 384; California Northern Railroad completion celebrated, 246; canneries established, 321, 355-56; Carpenter's Hill, location of, 88; Chinatown, 1873, 270-271; Chinatown burned, 66, 320, 335; CHINESE, held up near, 1887, 282; left in eighties, 320, vegetable peddlers boycotted, 305-06; churches, early, 116; churches in sixties, 261; citizens paid mortgage on Thermalito Hotel to clear for Odd Fellows Home, 338; climate, 21, 23; Committee of 100, 306; congressmen visited, 289; construction of building described by Butte Record, 1856, 66; county seat in 1856, 145-46; coal from Coal Canyon brought in, 263; Corzier's Hill, location, 88; diamonds, interest in, 369; dredging near, 328-30; electric power to dredging field, 352; Farelly, Philip, murdered, 253-54; Feather River, construction of railroad ended controversy and rivalry with Marysville over navigation, 246-48; Fernandez grant across river, 40; ferries operated by John Elder and George J. Vaughan, 110; Fire Commissioners Board appointed, 320; fires: 1857-1858, 66; fires, of seventies, 288; 1904, 1905, 378; 1892, 334; first officials, 365; FLOODS: 1862, 258-59; 1881, 298, 319; 1907, 365, 377; 1909, 378; founding of Oroville, 64; Fraser River excitement, 118; Gold Run, location, 88; HONEY LAKE ROAD, new road sought, 51; rivalry with Marysville over proposed road, 183; hotels operated by Huntoon and Bird, 120; houses brought from Bidwell Bar, 70; hydraulic mining convention, 327; incorporated, 1856 and disincorporated, 1859, 120; incorporation attempts, 1890-91, 338; incorporation attempts, 1902, successful, 1905, 365; Indian battle at, 185; Indian murdered, 1870, 280; Indian wounded, 281; Indian tribe across river, 25-26; irrigation system based on old mining ditches, 171; Knights of Pythias entertained, 389; Lincoln Memorial services, 236-37; liquor store robbed, 1912, 380; Marchella, Rocca, shot, 281; meeting to classify mineral and non-mineral lands, 273; MINING, dredging, 238; extensive dry diggings at, 87; mining of river bed at, 86; overflow of water from hill diggings to business district, 89; Miocene Ditch supplied water, 298; mosquito abatement campaign, 385-86; mountain freight trade in seventies, 291; National Guard, 335, 390; Native Sons of Golden West entertained, 189, 390; newspapers, sixties, 261; in 1900-1918, 364-76; Northern Electric Railroad to, 345; oil, drilling for, 370-71; olive oil factories, 323; on more permanent basis, 1876, 295; Ophir, former name of, 67-68; Ophir flour mills, 293; orange and olive expositions, 360; Oroville, 1900-1918, 364-67; Oroville Central Union League, 229-30; Oroville Mining Company, 262; Oroville Citrus Association formed, 303; Oroville Water & Power Company organized, 338; POPULATION, census, 1860-1910, 392; Chinese left in eighties, 320; decline in late fifties, 93; decrease, 262; Frazer River excitement depopulated, 118; in 1856, 119; stampede to Bidwell Bar in 1855 and 1856, 67; post office established, 1854, 104; Postal Savings Bank, first one established in California, 361; Red Cross Chapter at, 388; railroad to Hamilton proposed, 265; railroad to Nelson proposed, 389; Robinson's Hill, location, 88; Sacramento Valley Development Association meeting, 1898, 338; Safety Committee formed, 1879, 296; SCHOOLS, district formed, 1856, 115; Union High District formed, 337; settlement of described, 68; steamboats operated to in fifties, 68; streets named for pioneers, 120; Swayne Lumber Company, 359; telephone line to LaPorte, 1879, 296; theatres 1899, Metropolitan, 123-24; title to townsite granted, 1871, 291; Truckee Lumber Company, 345-46; Union victories celebrated, 232-35; vice conditions protested, 101; vice in fifties, 98-101; water festivals, 390; Y.M.C.A., third in state, 387; Young, constable, shot, 281.

Oroville & Beckwourth Pass Wagon Road Company, organized, 245.

Oroville & Feather River Ditch, construction of, 64; supplied Lynchburg water, 69; opposed granting of title to townsite of Oroville, 1871, 291.

Oroville & Nelson Railroad Company, incorporated, no action, 389.

Oroville & Virginia City Railroad, 249-51; declared not a legal corporation, 266-67.

Oroville Artillery, at opening of California Northern Railroad, 246.

Oroville Citrus Association, formed, 302-03; grand prize at fair, 1891, 326.

Oroville Guards, tender services to Governor for Indian pursuit, 198; hunt Indians, 200; expedition through Oregon & Concow townships, 210-11; part in celebrating Union victories, 232-35; celebrate completion of California Northern Railroad, 246.

Oroville Hospital, biographical sketch, 1217.

Oroville Mining Company, 1867, 262.

Oroville Public Library, Carnegie Building, 1912, 365; building given by Senator Perkins, 389.

Oroville Register, biographical sketch, 638.

Oroville Water & Power Company, organized, 338.

Oro Vista, see Ora Vista.

Osborn, Rev. E.A., biographical sketch, 1091.

Oser, M., biographical sketch, 717.

Osgood, James C., biographical sketch, 655; director Oroville Water & Power Company, 338.

Osio, Salvador, land grant to, 39.

Ossenbriiggen, Matthias, biographical sketch, 1197.

Ostenburch, C.M., President, Chico State Normal School, 1918, 318.

Outlaws, 160-61, 280; highway robberies, 254-57; gang captured near Nimshew, 283; in eighties, 315.

Overland Trails in California, BECKWITH (Beckwourth) TRAIL, 147, first train over, 48; dispute over year of discovery, 50; estimate of travel over, 51; route of, 50-51; HENNESS TRAIL, through Hangtown (Placerville), and Honey lake and Humbug Valley Route to Oroville, 46; LASSEN TRAIL and LASSEN (or Lawson) HORN ROUTE, 46; trip over, described by Joseph Brown, 52; followed by Oregon immigrants, 44; many emigrants over, settled at Oroville, 68.

Overton, Harris Leroy, biographical sketch, 1242.

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Pacific Gas & Electric Company, purchased Oro Electric Company, 353; irrigation systems of, 170; reservoir site used by Paradise Irrigation District, 348; rate war in Chico, 353.

Pack trains, mules used, 108-09.

Palermo, colony launched by McAfee Brothers, 303-04; Villa Hotel burned, 320; irrigation on commercial scale, 322, 346; Hammon House at, 329; unsuccessful attempt to form irrigation district, 348; olive plant built, 356.

Palermo Ditch, still used for irrigation, 87, 171; also known as South Feather Ditch, 89; dug by Feather River & Ophir Water Company, 119; offered for sale, 303-04.

Panecaldo, Leoeto A., biographical sketch, 1311.

Paradise, J.A. Smith killed, 281; first olive planting, 339; fruit and flower festival, 360; renewed activity, 367-68; origin of name, 368; train wreck near, 379.

Paradise Irrigation District, 348.

Paris, Thomas H., 141.

Parker, Billy, murdered, 383.

Parker, W.D., on first Biggs Board of Trustees, 367.

Parks, James Van, biographical sketch, 709; Constable, 255.

Parrott, John, land grant to, 179.

Passey, John, biographical sketch, 1173.

Patrick, James Thomas, biographical sketch, 1109.

Patrick, William Garrison, biographical sketch, 832.

Patten, Deputy Sheriff, 307.

Patterson, Jacob, 293; estimate of Indians, 192-93; statement on wing-dams, 86; comment on absence of women, 96.

Patterson, William Ray, biographical sketch, 1130.

Paxton, Fred N., biographical sketch, 1063.

Peachy, Frank, County Clerk, 314; suicide, 314; rescued marooned men, 319.

Pearson, Robert, 197.

Peavine, now Merrimac, 65; hotel conducted by husband of Mrs. Sarah Whipple, 65; sawmill, 93; post office established, 104; on route from Rich Bar to Bidwell Bar for exodus of miners, December, 1852, 60; Miners' Ranch, 62.

Peck, Mr., charter member Chico Fire Department, 363.

Peck, Elisha T., Senator from Butte County, 143, 167; statement on attempted bribery, 167; in Sutter-Butte controversy, 140.

Peck, James A., biographical sketch, 488.

Pellett, Miss, project of importing five-thousand young ladies, 96-97.

Pence, Mr., 146, 286; settled in Mesilla Valley, 185; trouble with Indians, 185-86; mass meeting to determine removal of Indians to reservations, 208-09; second meeting to determine progress of round up, 211-13.

Pence, W., 319.

Pence's Ranch, on proposed electric railroad line, 330; on Honey Lake-Oroville Road, 46; road to Spanishtown, 71.

Pendergast, John Franklin, biographical sketch, 1287.

Pennell, Robert., President State Normal School, 1893-1897, 318.

Pentz, (see also Pence), lumber flume near, 283; raisins cured at Durbin Ranch, 295; Durbin raisins presented to President Hayes, 300; skeleton of little girl discovered, 385; power house built near, 353.

Perkins, D.K., 303, 319; arranged purchase of Palermo Ditch, 303-04; sounded Feather River Channel, 308; started cannery, 321.

Perkins, Hon. George C., 237, 292; biographical sketch, 233; building given as library, 389; contributed one half of income to Sanitary Fund during Civil War, 237; in group offering to build Feather River wagon road, 292; participated in Lincoln Memorial services, 237; reviewed troops at railroad celebration, 246; visited County with Congressman, 389; worked for George W. Dyer, 86.

Perry, A., 141.

Perry, O.C., 355.

Pershbaker, W.C., 273.

Pershbaker Mine, yield in eighties, 300; acquired by Rideout, 328.

Person, C.H., murdered by Indians, 187.

Persons, P.R., 303.

Peters, William Henry, biographical sketch, 1262.

Petersen, George F.C., biographical sketch, 1095.

Peterson, B.F., murderer, 283.

Peterson, Thomas, biographical sketch, 1269.

Pfeiffer, Fred M., biographical sketch, 1186.

Philas, James, 293.

Philbrook Dam, washout, 378.

Phillips, Mrs. Emma Hickes, biographical sketch, 891.

Phillips, William, death of, 62.

Piachos, see Sutter Buttes.

Piatti, built first quartz mill at Forbestown, 91.

Pico, Pio, land grants by, 39-40, 174, 180.

Pickler, John William, biographical sketch, 1238.

Pierce and Francis, started saddle train to Idaho, 243.

Pierce, Mr., 71.

Pierce, Edward T., President of Chico Normal School, 1889-1893, 318.

Pierce, Joseph, 209.

Pierce, Dr. R.V., advertising deal on "Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery," helped finance Big Bend Tunnel, 299; interest in irrigation project, 323.

Pillett, Miss, project to import 5,000 young ladies, 96-97.

Pine Creek strange deaths at, 281; school district formed, 116; W.H. Hasting killed, 254.

Pioneers, list published in 1885 in Oroville Register, 51-52.

Pit River Route, see Overland Trails in California-Lassen Horn Route.

Pitts, A.M., 264; biographical sketch, 602.

Plagge, Albert A., biographical sketch, 1271.

Plant Intro Gardens, see U.S. Plant Intro Gardens.

Plumas County, Oroville and Virginia City road stock deal, 249-51, 266-67; gains in survey of County line. 1878, 296.

Plumas, Lassen & Sierra Counties, history of, see Fariss and Smith.

Plume, Mrs., shot, 200, recovered, 211.

Plymire, Samuel, biographical sketch, 767.

Poile, William, 176.

Politics, partisanship and politics, fifties, 166-67; Lincoln re-elected, 233-34; in seventies, 284-87; last of county conventions, 374-75; 1910 election, 375.

Polk, M.C., on redistricting, 373.

Pollock, Mrs. Mary M., biographical sketch, 1224.

Pond, Charles L., died, 338.

Pond, James L., 272.

Poor Man's Creek, gold discovery on, result of Gold Lake rush, 58.

Pope, John, biographical sketch, 1214.

Population, decline in Oroville, 93; cost of census, 1852, 164; census of 1850, for Butte County, 97; at time of 1856 election, 119; Bidwell took census, 132; distribution, 1860, 1870, 289; decrease, 1880-1890, 296-97; by townships, 1890, 1900, 322; population, 1910, 391; in Sacramento Valley, 1847, 38.

Porter, C.E., 372; Chairman County Highway Commission, 360; biographical sketch, 455.

Porter, J.L., indicted in fee case, 373.

Posey, Lewis, 264.

Post Office, dates of establishment, Butte County, 406-07.

Postal Service, 103-05; Chico to Boise City, 243; first Postal Savings Bank of California, 361; mails used to defraud, 383-84; new Chico Post Office, 390.

Potter, Benjamin F., biographical sketch, 1121.

Potter, E.G., 355.

Potter, John, house at New Salem, a polling place in territorial election, 137.

Potter, S.O., brought Cherokee Indians to Butte County, 1853, 72.

Potter, mined at Potter's Bar, North Fork, 43; Peter Burnett camped near house, 38; in gold discovery party, 1848, 42.

Potter's Bar, location, 71, 83; Chinaman killed at, 215; Slater in charge of operations at, 83; river channel diverted, 85.

Powell, George W., biographical sketch, 1154.

Powell, Rev. J.J., Welch Congregational minister at Cherokee, 116.

Powell, J.W., quotations from Indian Tribes of California, 24; summary of life and customs of California Indians, 31; Meaning of Maidu of Maideh, title of Powell's book.

Powell, R.P., located Powellton, 73; surveyed and constructed road now leading to Susanville, 73.

Powellton, located by R.P. Powell, 73.

Power, Mrs. Mary E., biographical sketch, 459.

Power development, see Electric power development.

Powers, Jack, found diamonds, 369.

Powers, John E., killed, 339.

Powers, Justice of the Peace, J.E., 320.

Powers, W.B., 272.

Powers Mine, enjoined, 298.

Prather, James, biographical sketch, 1105.

Pratt, Judge, Orville C., 123; biographical sketch, 428; developed Aguas Frias Rancho and subdivided it, 290; asks lower tax assessment, 181; planted almonds, 356; land grant of, 178, 290.

Pratt, Orville C., Jr., biographical sketch, 1224.

Pratt, Dr. Willard, biographical sketch, 1324.

Presley, Augustus C., biographical sketch, 729.

Preston, John, 231.

Price, Edward B., editor of Oroville Mercury, 331; died while assemblyman, 331.

Price, Eunice, nearly murdered, 279.

Price, John, biographical sketch, 597.

Printy, Mr., 248.

Prior, Frank A., biographical sketch, 924.

Prostitution, see Vices.

Provisions, cost at Long Bar, 69; cost of in '49, 113; cost in middle fifties, 113-14; at Bidwell Bar, 1859, 54; cost at Buckeye, 60; at Rich Bar, 64; at Keefer's Station, 168.

Pulliam, R.C., 284.

Pulley, Matt B., biographical sketch, 598.

Pyke, Harold, biographical sketch, 1312.

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Quadros, A.S., biographical sketch, 1072.

Quigley, Seth R., biographical sketch, 1316.

Quincy, formerly American Valley Ranch, 51.

Quincy Road, building of, 182-83; dispute over route, 181-82.

Quimby, C.S., 287.

 

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Rabe, Mrs. Catherine, biographical sketch, 607.

Racetrack, near Oroville, by Kate Stone, 120.

Racial distribution, census, 1850-1910, 393.

Railroad, Butte & Plumas Railway-first company, 342; Butte & Plumas Railway-second company, 345-46; CALIFORNIA NORTHERN RAILROAD, 245-46, 249; bonds, 166; failure to pay interest, 266; foreclosure, purchased by Southern Pacific, 307; settlement on county owned bonds, 307; California & Oregon Railroad, 171; California Pacific completed to Marysville, 266; Central Pacific, 243, 249, 264; FEATHER RIVER RAILROAD PROJECTS, 307-08; from 1900-1918, 341-45; in 1865, 238; in nineties, 330-31; Indian Valley Railroad, 342; PROPOSED, from Chico to Chico Landing, 266; from Oroville to Hamilton, 265; narrow gauge through Feather Canyon, 267; Pacific Railway, 183; Stockton & Beckwith Pass Railroad, 343; Western Pacific, 249; see Western Pacific; E.J. Yard reconnaissance of Feather River, 322, 330.

Raish, Charles W., biographical sketch, 1272.

Ramley, John F., biographical sketch, 1277.

Ramsay, William, 215.

Rancheria, location, 90; mainly Chinese miners, 90; clean-up at, 75.

Rancho Chico, purchased by Bidwell, 132.

Rancho Golden Grove, bordered Fernandez grant, 40, 178; planted, 1891, 326; Hammon owned, 329.

Randall, R.R., 146-47.

Randolph Point, 83-84.

Ranker, Otto Phillip, biographical sketch, 1192.

Rasmussen, J.C., biographical sketch, 1308.

"Rattling Jack," see Mitchell.

Reagan, Charlotte, biographical sketch, 971.

Reagan, Miss Ida, first county librarian, 361.

Reavis, D.M., 287; failure of, 305.

Reclamation Districts, 348.

Red Cross Chapters, during World War, 1914-1918, 388.

Reed, Mr., at Yankee Hill, 71.

Reed, C.N., publisher, Gridley Herald, 320.

Reed, C.W., 298.

Reed, H.B., 318.

Reese, William, 281.

Reicker, Paul, on Oroville Levee Commission, 365.

Reilly, T.P., indicted in fee case, 373; indicted, 364,

Reimers, Fred W., biographical sketch, 1127.

Reservoir House, 200.

Resin, produced in Butte County during Civil War, 237-38.

Retson, John, biographical sketch, 1050.

Reyman, Harold C., biographical sketch, 1146.

Reyman, M., 303.

Reynolds, E.T., 376.

Reynolds, James, co-finder of Spanish Manuscript, 294.

Reynolds, Sherman A., biographical sketch, 1168.

Rheinhart, Theodore, 364.

Rice, Charles Allen, biographical sketch, 1274.

Rice, profitable rice crops prophesied, 181; Biggs rice milling center, 367.

Rice Brothers, first white men at Wyandotte, 72.

Richards, Charles Alfred, biographical sketch, 1025.

Richards, Charles Henry, biographical sketch, 1291,

Richardson, Clarence C., biographical sketch, l0l3.

Richardson, Jared V., biographical sketch, 460.

Richardson, John C., biographical sketch, 475.

Richardson, Mrs. Mary Jane, biographical sketch, 902.

Richardson Springs, biographical sketch, 1098; hotel construction begun, 1899, 340; drilling for oil, 370.

Rich Bar, east branch of North Fork, miners leave for Bidwell Bar, December 28, 1852, 59; gold discovery at, result of Gold Lake rush, 58; described by Mrs. Shirley Clappe, 64-65; scene of robbery, 150; anti-foreign trouble, 1852, 161; visited by N.S.G.W., 390; lack of women at, 96.

Rich Bar, Middle Fork, gold discovery as result of Gold Lake rush, 58.

Rich Gulch, first name of Thompson's Flat, 70; another Rich Gulch succeeded by Yankee Hill, 71-72.

Richvale, rice plantings, 357; in heart of rice section, 368.

Riddle, W.R., biographical sketch, 1113.

Riddle, W.S., murdered, 313.

Rideout, N.D., purchased California Northern Railroad, 307; acquired Pershbaker Mine, 328.

Rideout, Smith & Company, buy Brush Creek gold piece, 271.

Riecker, Paul, biographical sketch, 660.

Riedel, J., biographical sketch, 862.

Riley, George C., biographical sketch, 1173.

Riley, John, 293.

Rio Bonito, located on Fernandez land grant, 40; land auction, 1888, 305; murder at, 384; old coins found near, 390.

Rio Grande Western Railroad, 341.

Risberg, Albert O., trial and execution of, 156-57; murdered Charles Brooks, 102.

Risdon Iron Works, built first dredge in Oroville, 329.

Ritter, Carlton M., 318.

Roads, see also Transportation, Beckwourth Trail established, 47-51; California-Oregon Road, 249; discussion of route to American Valley, 181-82; in 1865, 238; in seventies, 291-92; Humboldt Highway and Idaho Road, 242-43; junction route abandoned, 182; 1900-1918, 359-61; Oroville to Dogtown, 244; transcontinental highway dream, 183.

Robb, Don B., biographical sketch, 1306.

Robbers' Gulch, origin of name, 254-55.

Robbery, see Crime.

Robert, A., at Deadwood Claim, 75-76.

Roberts, Eugene, 275, 282.

Robinson, Charles, stage driver, 256.

Robinson, John R., 373; biographical sketch, 712.

Robinson, John R., Sr., biographical sketch, 712.

Robinson, Mrs. Olive Swift, biographical sketch, 1254.

Robinson's Hill, near Western Pacific Shops, 88.

Robison, Charles, 197.

Rock Creek, school district formed, 116; in church circuit, 116; grasshopper hunt near, 195.

Rock Island Claim, 81.

Rock River House, on route of miners in December, 1852, 61.

Rodley, John Ellis, M.D., biographical sketch, 730; mayor of Chico, 333; accused in Fuller Will case, 333-34, 379-80.

Roether, Charles, on Huber grant, 38, 172.

Rogers, Charles F., accidental death, 379.

Rogers, Constable, robbed, 1877, 282.

Rogers, Thomas, 209, 211.

Rollins, Fred, biographical sketch, 914.

Roos, Axel H., biographical sketch, 1287.

Rorabough, J.B., 206.

Rose, R.C., 211.

Rosedale, annexed to Chico, 364.

Rosenbaum, M., 232.

Ross, John, shot Rocco Marchella, 281,

Rouelle, Baptiste, probably instructed miners in use of gold pan, 76-77.

Rough and Ready, gold production of, 76.

Rowe, Charles, killed brother-in-law, 332.

Royce, C.G., author of Bidwell biography and associate and business manager of Bidwells, 128.

Ruff, Will Carl, biographical sketch, 716.

Rugh, Edgar Bird, biographical sketch, 732.

Rumball, Helen, death of, 381.

Rumbolz, Herman Karl, biographical sketch, 313.

Rumble, George W., charged with using mail to defraud, 383-84.

Runnel, Marshal, 311.

Russel, Thomas, 197.

Russell, Charles, 197.

Russell, F.H., superintendent of Magalia mine, 300.

Rutherford, John Eugene, biographical sketch, 605; raised first fruit in Wyandotte, 170.

Rutherford, Mrs. Pearle, biographical sketch, 699.

Rynearson, Daniel, biographical sketch, 1283.

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Sacramento River, navigation in fifties, 110-11; California Steamboat Navigation Company, 240; statistics on drainage, 1902-1906, 403; bounds Butte County on west, 18.

Sacramento Valley, white population in 1847, 38; early explorations, 36; Hudson Bay Company representative in, 36; report of flood of about 1830 and 1805, 62; mapped by Bidwell, 38.

Sacramento Valley Bank, biographical sketch, 984.

Sacramento Valley Development Association, organized 1898, 338.

Sadowski, Charles F., biographical sketch, 975.

Safford, Judge W.S., made application for granting of title to Oroville townsite, 291; Justice of the Peace, 149.

Sailor Claim, see Old Sailor Claim.

Salisbury, C.S., 363.

Salmon, Mrs. Melissa Patrick, biographical sketch, 491.

Salt, importance to Indians, 186, 192.

Sanders, land grant to, 38, 172.

Sanders, G.P., 141.

"Sanitary flour," flour ground at Bidwell's mill, 135; Gridley wheat, 237.

Sanitary Fund, auction to benefit, 233; sanitary flour sack, 135, 237.

Sargent, A.A., 233.

Savery, Mr., 67.

Sawyer, Dr., 277.

Schaeffer, Mr., 188.

Schaeffer, Fred A., 287.

Schilling, John Stephen, biographical sketch, 681.

Schley, George C., biographical sketch, 1270.

Schmidt, Herman L., murdered wife Lena, 311.

Schmidt, William, 209.

Scholfield, Anson, biographical sketch, 1084.

Schoof, August Claus, biographical sketch, 1291.

Schooler, W.H., defense attorney in Fuller case, 379; defense attorney in Slaughter case, 382.

Schools, Biggs Union High organized, 390; Chico State Normal School, 316-18; Bidwell donated land for, 135; first schools in 1853, 115; first high schools, 337; first county tax levy, 115; first building for school purposes, 115; first State money, 1854, 115; none in County in 1851, 97-114; private schools, 115; size of, 1854, 115; statistics for 1917, 407; ten districts formed in seventies, 295; township constituted school district, 116.

Schooly, Thomas, suffered winter hardships, 60-62.

Schwelke, Paul, murdered, 283.

Scolly, Mr., California Northern Railroad deal, 307.

Scott, A.M., biographical sketch, 704.

Scott, Edward Morris, biographical sketch, 1097.

Scott, Elisha, co-founder of Clipper Mills, 70.

Scott, J.W., county surveyor, 182.

Scott, Thomas, 198.

Sears, H.K., biographical sketch, 1328.

Seevers, Cecil Jo, biographical sketch, 1099.

Seisserth, Gustav, murdered, 383.

Self, Charles T., biographical sketch, 1308.

Sellick, Mrs. Mary, biographical sketch, 849.

September rise of Feather River, 84, 86.

Sessions, M.C., 320.

Sexton, Warren T., 183; ACCOUNT OF: Bidwell's discovery of gold, 42; April Fool's election, 139; county seat election, 1850, 144; county seat election, 1856, 145-46; judicial election, 1852, 148; arrived in party with Lott and Brown, 113; biography, 296; Captain of National Guards, 1891, 335; comment on Mexican Land Grants, 172-73; county clerk, 141; ex officio superintendent of school, 97, 114; death, 1878, 296; district attorney in Harper trial, 152; elected district judge, 158; observation on taxes, 165; presided in anti-debris suit, 269; presided in Girr case, 231; presided in Railroad case, 251; report as County Auditor, 1853, 164-65.

Seymour, Rev. B.N., Congregational minister at Oroville, 116.

Shade Hotel, at Bidwell Bar, 67.

Shakespeare Mine, owned by Vail and Nickerson, 92; gold production, 76.

Shannon, John, biographical sketch, 430.

Shannon, W.R., 141.

Sharkey, Walter J., biographical sketch, 587.

Sharkey, William, publisher, Butte County Record, 289.

Sharkovitch, George, murdered Susan McDaniel, 276-77.

Shaw, Samuel Marian, biographical sketch, 1046.

Shearer, Charles D., biographical sketch, 1150.

Sheperd, H.B., Justice of the Peace, 149.

Sherman, Charles, express service of, 280.

Sherman, General William, in Hayes party visiting Butte County, 299-300.

Sherwood, Hon. W.S., judge of district court, 144, 147-48.

Shippee, Hon. Wanton Allen, biographical sketch, 715; wheat farmer, 304.

Shirley, description of Rich Bar, 64-65; mentions scarcity of white women at Rich Bar., 96.

Shirley, Adam, attempted murder, 279.

Shirley, Lemuel Crittenden, biographical sketch, 1050.

Shirley, Other T., biographical sketch, 1033.

Short, Howard Porter, biographical sketch, 741.

Short, L.H., 308.

Shuffleton, H.C., biographical sketch, 1139.

Shults, George W., county judge, 148.

Sierra Flume Company, 283; failed, 1878, 284.

Sierra Valley, formerly Beckwourth Valley, 50-51.

Simms, J.O., biographical sketch, 620.

Simms, James H., biographical sketch, 1283.

Simpson, Alexander Gibb, 376; biographical sketch, 611; co-owner of first Oroville store, 119; named bluff Baghdad, 119; affadavit on freeing of slaves, 227; wired for confirmation of fall of Richmond, 235; participated in Lincoln Memorial services, 236-37; review troops at railroad celebration, 246.

Singer, Captain W.E., Feather River Express, 105-06; transported passengers from American Valley to Sacramento in two days, 182-83.

Sisk, Richard M., biographical sketch, 749.

Sisters' Hospital, biographical sketch, 1117.

Skinkle, A., Justice of the Peace, 149.

Slater, E.W., comment on county seat election, 1856, 146; description of Bidwell Bar, 65; on scarcity of women at Bidwell Bar, 96; STATEMENT ON: Bidwell Bar hotels, 64; flumes, 86; inequality of gold values in Feather River, 82-83; length of fluming season, 84; size of fluming company claims, 93.

Slaughter case, 382-83.

Slaughter, Charles, 275, 282.

Slaughter, John, arrested, 275, 282.

Slavery, record of freeing of slaves in Butte County, 226-27; absence of interest in as a national issue, 226.

Slissman, Lewis, biographical sketch, 952; Southern Pacific agent at Oroville, 369.

Sluice, see Mining methods.

Smith, Dr., opens store at Long's Bar with McCorkle, 69.

Smith, Arthur H., biographical sketch, 656.

Smith F.M., 232-33.

Smith, George Adams,.152; elected district judge, 148.

Smith, G.K., Biggs city treasurer, 367.

Smith, Jacob, murdered partner, 254.

Smith, Captain J.W., 323.

Smith, John A., killed, 281.

Smith, John H., biographical sketch, 1259.

Smith, M.H., co-owner of Banner Mine, 91.

Smith, Mary and Jessie, kidnaped by Indians, 385.

Smith, N., 197.

Smith, Mrs. Nettie Thompson, biographical sketch, 1243.

Smith, Miss Vienna Fain, biographical sketch, 1005.

Smith, W. N., 213-14.

Smith, Wyatt, M., co-owner of Dogtown Nugget, 74.

Smith Construction, Land & Improvement Company, 323.

Smizer, H.T.A., jury foreman, 275.

Smuck, Mrs. Ella C. Swinney, biographical sketch, 1001.

Smullin, S.N.D., and Company, biographical sketch, 1014.

Snake Lake Valley, on Beckwith Trail, 51.

Snider, John Wesley, biographical sketch, 588.

Snow, H.B., 352.

Snow, L.A., 209.

Snow, Lucius A., biographical sketch, 840.

Snyder, Mr., at Yankee Hill, 71.

Soda Bar, miners left for winter of 1852, 60.

Sommer, Carl Julius, biographical sketch, 1071.

Songs, "Boys of '49," 124-25; "California Emigrant," 125-26; "Joe Bowers," 126-27.

Soubirous, Josephs, biographical sketch, 1282.

Soule, J. T., 272.

South Feather Land and Water Company, organized, 347; their ditch also called Forbestown Ditch, 72.

South Feather (Palermo) Ditch, 89.

Southern, Mr., house burned, 219.

Southern Pacific, purchased California Northern Railroad, 307; purchased Butte County Railroad, 341.

Souza, Joseph, biographical sketch, 1286.

Sowell, Shadrack, killed Kimbrell and Dickhouse, 383.

Spangler, Edward F., biographical sketch, 1131.

Spangler, Levi Irad, biographical sketch, 1145.

Spangler, William C., biographical sketch, 1174.

Spanish American War, Butte County residents participated, 335.

Spanish Manuscript, 1519, found in 1879, 36, 192, 294.

Spanish Ranch, on Beckwith Trail, 51.

Spanishtown, described in North Californian, 71; Chileno and Mexicans discover diggings, 71; vice in, 97-98; stage service to, 110.

Sparks, E.N., co-owner of Banner Mine, 91.

Sparks-Edmonds marriage, 97.

Spence, C.C., Biggs city clerks 367.

Sports, see Amusements.

Sprague, Sheriff, 307, 309, 315.

Spring Garden Creek, on Beckwith Trails, 51.

Spring Valley Mine, office moved, dirt under building washed, 321; sold under foreclosure, 1896, 339; water system sold, 353; merged with Waldeyer Mines, 1880, 297; hydraulic equipment at, 297; disposition of tailings, 268-69, 297; visited by President Hayes and party, 300; beginnings of, 267.

Springer, George E., biographical sketch, 893.

Springer, Jason, mill burned, 334.

Sproul, D.R., acquitted, 314.

Sproul, Joseph Davis, biographical sketch, 563; led Chico's fight for County division, 1892, 331; district attorney in Fuller case, 379; district attorney in Riddel case, 313.

Squatter, on land grants, 171-72, 176-78.

Stafford, Frank E., biographical sketch, 1323.

Stages, see Transportation.

Stamper, Christian, murdered, 283.

Stanford, Ingate Daniel, biographical sketch, 1191.

Stanford University, VINA RANCH: on most of Esquon land grant, 39; on part of Bosquejo land grant, 39, 180.

Stanwood, Swayne mill lost in fire, 359.

Starratt, J.E., biographical sketch, 1182.

State College of Agriculture, State Constitution, State Land Settlement Colony, State Legislature, see California State.

Steadman; Edward, on first Biggs Board of Trustees, 367.

Stearns, Dr. A.K., mine superintendent, 74.

Stebbins, Cyril A., M.S., biographical sketch, 705.

Steinbrook, Thomas, arrested, 275, 282.

Stephens, C.S., acquitted of murder charge, 281.

Stephens, Nick, biographical sketch, 1149.

Sterling, W.H., biographical sketch, 1066.

Stevens, H., attempted murder, 253.

Stewart, Franklin, freed his slave, 226-27.

Stile, Thomas Frederick, biographical sketch, 1049.

Stiles, C.W., publisher of Butte Record, 117.

Stiller, Mark, biographical sketch, 1305.

Stilson, Charles L., 228; biographical sketch, 497; libel suit against, 285; appointed county clerk, 314.

Stirling City, established by Diamond Match Company, 341; Diamond Match Company operation reduced, 1917, 359; robber of six men, 1908, 380; bank robbed, 1911, 380.

Stirling City Schools, biographical sketch, 1093.

Stockton, G.W., Justice of the Peace, 149.

Stockton & Beckwith Pass Railroad, 343.

Stoddard, story of his gold find and Gold Lake rush, 57.

Stoer, F.J., mining claims at Forbestown, 368.

Stokes, Isaac, biographical sketch, 1214.

Stone, Kate, opened race track, 120.

Stores, at election precincts, 147; at Adamstown, 69; at Bidwell Bar, 64; at Inskip, 73; at Martinsburgh, 261; at Oregon Creek, kept by Vantine, 191; at Oroville, first store, 119; Bidwell established trading post, 37-38; general store at Long's Bar, 68-69; Hyland, L.C., established store at Bangor, 72; Smith and McCorkle established store at Long's Bar, 69; Lumbert Brothers established store at Bangor, 72; Wells, M.H., established store at Yankee Hill, 72.

Storey, Alfred James, biographical sketch, 894.

Stout, George H., County Superintendent of Schools, 336.

Stow, Harry P., biographical sketch, 721; developed mine at Forbestown, 328; on W.P., division shops committee, 366.

Stow. W.W., developed Gold Bank properties, 92, 328.

Strahl, Riley, died in "poisoned wine" case, 311-12.

Strawberry Valley, miners wintered in 1852-53, 59.

Streeter, Daniel, biographical sketch, 596.

Streeter, John Wesley, biographical sketch, 596.

Streeter-Fleming Ditch, developed into Sutter-Butte Canal, (q.v.). 304.

Stringtown, account of beginners luck at, 79; Captain Yuba of, 190-92; Chinese from, in Oroville fight, 252; Hurdy-gurdy girls at, 122-23; location, 70; murder of Coyle, 1870, 280-81; murder of Dickinson, 278-79; origin of name, 70; passing of Yuba Indians, 217.

Strode, James L., biographical sketch, 1209.

Stroehl, Martin, biographical sketch, 706.

Strommer, John, shot, 200.

Sturmer, Mr., found diamonds, 369.

Sucker Run, murder at, 383.

Sugar beets, 355.

Sugar Pine Flume Company, 282; failed, 1878, 284.

Sunderland, Hank, 240.

Sunical Packing Company, 355.

Sunset Mining Company, 383.

Superintendent of Schools, Warren Sexton, county clerk and ex officio superintendent of schools, 1851, 97, 114; Jesse Wood, 115; Miles Chaplin, 1854, 115.

Supplies, see Provisions.

Surcease Mine, 368.

Survey, of San Francisco and Great Salt Lake Railroad by Keddie, 330; Bidwell's survey of Ranchos, 24; Bidwell's map of Sacramento Valley, 38; of road to Susanville, by Powell, 73; base line through Ophir determined, 1855, 174; first federal surveys, 180; road to Quincy, 1855, 182; Chico surveyed, 240; railroad route up Feather River, 249; re-survey of Butte Tehama line, 295; re-survey of Butte and Plumas line, 296.

Susanville, arrival of stage from Chico, 243; subscriptions to improve road to Chico, 243; importance as staging center, 1866, 254.

Sutherland, F.T., part in developing dredgers, 329.

Sutter Butte Canal, formerly Butte County Canal, 347.

Sutter Buttes, discovered by Arguello, 1820, 36; named Picachos by Arguello, renamed Sutter Buttes by Michael La Frambois, 1829, 36; gave name to Butte County, 139; given Butte County and later returned to Sutter County in boundary changes, 143.

Sutter Grant, see Land Grants.

Swain, O.E., schoolmaster., describes early private schools, 115; describes Bangor's first public school, 115-16.

Swayne Lumber Company, purchased Truckee Lumber Company and Mill, 359; office on former Carpenter's Hill, 88.

Swearington, Harry, murdered wife, Ella, and mother-in-law, 309.

Swearington, John, involved in Fuller Will case, 333.

Swift, George, 272.

"Sydney Ducks," 102, 123.

Sypher, S. Maxwell, biographical sketch, 1047.

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Taber, Floyd., 303.

Taber, Howard H., 335.

Taber, P.I., 363.

Table Mountain, Joseph Brown makes camp, 1849, 53; tunnel mining in, 92; irrigation system based on old mining ditches, 171; flint cave on or near, 189; murder of George N. Jenson, 252-53; Spring Valley Mine at north end, 267; Miocene Ditch on, 298; Treasure Box Mine, 298; meteor, 1829, 336.

Tabler, Roy O., biographical sketch, 1281.

Taxes, assessed valuation; 1850-1917, 405; assessments in mountain townships, down, 1884, 321; Bidwell's tax assessment, 1856, 168-69; Central Pacific train attached to force payment of taxes, 307; collecting poll tax, 1873, 271; difficulty in making assessment, 1858, 196; direct tax for bridges, 359; foreign miners' tax, 162-64; land values, 1863, 181; liberal levies for education, 360; Sexton's observations on taxes, 165; small basin for taxation, 164; special tax for jail, Hamilton, 144; special tax for jail, second, 145; value of taxable property, 1858, 169.

Taylor, Charles, criminal record, 312.

Taylor, "Father," early day preacher, 98.

Taylor, Gilbert Hart, biographical sketch, 613.

Taylor, James Henry, biographical sketch, 1031.

Tehama County, gained most of Lomo precinct by re-survey, 286.

Telephone, first system in 1879, 296.

Temperance movement, in fifties, 100-01; Mrs. Bidwell's interest in, 136; local option law, 364, 374.

Temple, Jackson, defeated by Bidwell, 234.

Territorial election, 1849, 137.

Thatcher, Albert I., biographical sketch, 1156.

Thatcher, Frank Marion, biographical sketch, 951.

Thatcher, William Henry, biographical sketch, 1096.

Theatres, amateur theatricals; 123; professional theatrical companies, 123; Metropolitan Theatre, Oroville, 123-24; on Sunday in Oroville, 99.

Theft, see Crime.

Thermalito, located on Fernandez land grant, 40; first commercial orange planting at, 171; irrigation system based on old mining ditches, 171; selected for infirmary site, 1877, 296; Thermalito Citrus Colony launched, 302-03; Fogg planted olive tract, 1887, 304; irrigation on commerical scale, 322, 346; increased plantings, 326; unsuccessful attempt to form irrigation district, 348; Odd Fellows Home, 337-38; Henry Bird place in, 90.

Thomas, Mrs. May L., biographical sketch, 1166.

Thomas, Nath, 257.

Thomas, S.K., 240.

Thomas, W.S., 199.

Thomasson, Beryl Verne, biographical sketch, 768.

Thomasson, George W., biographical sketch, 745.

Thomasson, Hardy, 222.

Thomasson, Margaret, biographical sketch, 558.

Thomasson, Nath, helped Lewis girl, 204-06.

Thomasson, Nathaniel H., and Caroline, biographical sketch, 437.

Thomasson, William Hardy, biographical sketch, 558.

Thompson, Annie, arrested, 312.

Thompson, George, brought hotel to Thompson's Flat, 64; established hotel and store at Thompson's Flat, 70.

Thompson, J.B., burned, 378.

Thompson, John W., biographical sketch, 1143.

Thompson, Mrs. Mary, biographical sketch, 869.

Thompson, William H., biographical sketch, 1235.

Thompson's Flat, Davis mined near, 43; hotel brought by Thompson, 64; fire at, 66; first settled by Davis, 70; called Rich Gulch first, 70; description of in 1854, 70; school established, 1855, 115; case of robbery, 156; diamonds found, 1872, 271.

Thompson's Ranch, C.E. Campbell murdered, 281.

Thorne, Henry William, biographical sketch, 1132.

Thresher, Albert Lincoln, biographical sketch, 1190.

Thresher, Columbus W., 376; biographical sketch, 465.

Thresher, George, biographical sketch, 1184.

Thrower, Joseph Bennette, biographical sketch, 963.

Thunen, Charles G., biographical sketch, 743.

Tilden, Dr. William P., 240; publisher Northern Enterprise, 289.

Todd, Mr., 220.

Todd, Samuel, land grant to, 178, 290.

Todd, Warren B., biographical sketch, 877.

Toland, Charles, 319.

Too, Jim, murdered, 283.

Totmam, James A., biographical sketch, 751.

Townships, six created, August, 1851, 147; two added December, 1851, 147; nine formed in 1854, 147; changes during 1856-57, 147; changes, 1866-67, 260; in 1880, 316; population by 1890 and 1900, 322, 392; population by 1910, 392.

Tovee, Charles Edward, biographical sketch, 1093.

Transportation, see also Express Companies, Feather River-Navigation, Sacramento River-Navigation, road railroads; Bidwell Bar Bridge, 181-82; California cart described by Bidwell, 40-41; FERRIES: across Sacramento River, 1903, 378; license petition heard by Judge Bean, 155; number in 1855, 168; George Perkins bought Long's Bar Ferry, 293; FREIGHT: passenger and mail to Idaho, 242-43; to mountains during seventies, 291; in eighties, 307-08; passenger trains of mules, 109, 182-83; STAGES: Chico to Oroville and Marysville, in sixties, 240; from Oroville to mining camps, 119; toll road Chico to Honey Lake, 242-43; rivalry between Marysville, Chico and Oroville, 242; roads built in 1865, 238.

Trayner, John H., biographical sketch, 618.

Treat, Warren, acquitted of murder, 384.

Troxel, Allen T., biographical sketch, 740.

Troxel, Josiah and Eve Ann, biographical sketch, 739.

Troxel, K.B., 331.

Troxel, Samuel A., biographical sketch, 908.

Troxel, Thomas Jefferson, biographical sketch, 1108.

Troy, location now unknown, 63, 67.

Truckee Lumber Company, acquired Butte County forests, 345-46; Butte and Plumas Railway as subsidiary, 346; mill in Oroville, 359; sold to Swayne Lumber Company, 359.

True, Benjamin F., biographical sketch, 556.

Truitt, Solomon Stanley, biographical sketch, 734.

Truxell, E.F. , biographical sketch, 838.

Tufford, Martin, biographical sketch, 1092.

Tunnels, on West Branch of North Fork, 83; Table Mountain, 92; BIG BEND TUNNEL, first mention, 272; constructed, 299; as irrigation project, 352; in river bed, 301; Gold Bank cross-cut tunnel, 328; Spring Garden Tunnel on Western Pacific, 344.

Turner, proprietor of American Valley Ranch, 48, 50; subscribes to Beckwith Pass Fund, 48.

Turner, John C., biographical sketch, 564.

Turner, W.H., 227.

Turpen Brothers, at Forbes Ravine, 75.

Turpentine, produced in Butte County during Civil War, 238-39.

Tyler, Joseph B., biographical sketch, 1108.

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Uhl, Joseph K., biographical sketch, 1259.

Underwood, James, shot Young, 281.

Union Enterprise Company, flumed river at Enterprise, 1852, 70.

Union States Diamond Mining Company, 369.

United States Mining Investment Company, organized to merge Spring Valley mines and Waldeyer property, 297.

Upper Sacramento Agricultural Society, 240.

U.S. Plant Introduction Gardens, 354-55.

Utah Construction Company, awarded contract for grading Western Pacific, 344.

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Vadney, George E., biographical sketch, 1006.

Vail, Henry Eugene, biographical sketch, 663; statement on richness of Forbestown mining grounds, 83; arrival at Forbestown, 89; described hydraulic mining, 89; statement on fluming in 1857, 75; millman for Peatte, 91; co-owner of Shakespeare mine, 92; relates example of absence of gold values in deep holes, 83.

Valley Contracting Company, 358-59; plant completed, 370.

Van Clief, Peter, 251.

Van Der Naillen, R., 366.

Vandegrift, Samuel A., biographical sketch, 1194.

Van Gooden, Suel Joseph, biographical sketch, 1216.

Van Norden, 182

Van Liew, C.C.: 318; elected president of State Normal School, 340; removed from State Normal School presidency, 386.

Van Ness, Samuel, settled Dayton, 171.

Van Refer, A.C., alias Daly, Dr. J.M., murder of, 281.

Vanschoiack, Charles L., biographical sketch, 1183.

Vantine, W.D., storekeeper, on Oregon Creek, 191.

Van Vlack, Lewis, biographical sketch, 752.

Vaughn, George J., operated ferry in Oroville, 110.

Veazie City, location of, 63, 67.

Venable, William B., biographical sketch, 923.

Vera, Joseph N., undersheriff, 278.

Vergean, E.F. , 67.

Vettel, Authur Frank, biographical sketch, 1213.

Vices, gambling and drinking, 97-100; prostitution, 100; prostitution in Chico, 241; gambling preacher, 99; gambling in Chico in sixties, 241; prostitution in Oroville China Town, 252; prosecution of gambling useless, 295; enforcement of gambling laws demanded, 1887, 321; prostitution, Judge Zambriskie's charge to Grand Jury, 100; GAMBLING: Grand Jury attacked conditions, 390; drastic laws against, adopted, 390.

Vigilantes of San Francisco, caused exodus of criminals from San Francisco to mining districts, 102-03.

Vina Ranch, 39, 180.

Voorhies, H.L., biographical sketch, 1315.

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Wadlington, Solon Lawrence, biographical sketch, 1052.

Wahl, Henry, biographical sketch, 1270.

Wahl, Wiley W., biographical sketch, 1102.

Wakefield, Frederick, biographical sketch, 460.

Waldeyer, Charles, Waldeyer Mine and Spring Valley Mine merged, 297; superintendent Spring Valley Mine, 300; received President Hayes party, 300.

Walker, E.B., killed, 281.

Walker, Fred E., biographical sketch, 1146; organized Butte County Land and Water Company in 1893, 323.

Walker, J.A., 306.

Walker, Jefferson Asbury, biographical sketch, 641.

Walker, O.N., built dredger, 272.

Walker, W.A., on first Biggs Board of Trustees, 367.

Walker, W.D., biographical sketch, 1280.

Walker's Plains, miners try to reach, December, 1852, 61; road to foot of, 182.

Wallace, John, coroner, died in office, 391.

Walley, George, killed, 332.

Wallingford, E., elected coroner, 1850, 141.

Walliser, J.H., biographical sketch, 1256.

Walsh, Edward Ernest, biographical sketch, 1317.

Walze, William, killed, 339.

Ward, Edward Benson, biographical sketch, 567.

Ward, Hon. John McKee, biographical sketch, 467.

Ward, W.A., arrived via Lassen Trail, 46.

Ward, William, biographical sketch, 567.

Ward Brothers, 287.

Wardo, Waldo, murdered, 383.

Ware, Allison, 318.

Warfield, George, children drown, 339.

Warren, Edward A., 318; biographical sketch, 965.

Warren, Mrs. Mary A., biographical sketch, 469.

Washburn, Calvin Uriah, biographical sketch, 807.

Washburn, Francis M., biographical sketch, 1230.

Washburn, Oliver Arnold, biographical sketch, 562.

Water power, see Electric power development.

Water resources, 18.

Waterland, Captain John S., biographical sketch, 762.

Waterman, Professor, Ishi sponsored by, 387.

Watkins, John, biographical sketch, 1321.

Watson, Freddie, arrested, 278-79.

Watson, W.S., California Northern Railroad deal, 307.

Watts, James, operated ferry between Hamilton and Ophir, 110.

Waugh, George A., biographical sketch, 948.

Waymire, Judge J.A., 352.

Weather, see Climate.

Weatherbee, Ira, co-owner of Dogtown Nugget, 74.

Weaver, David, assessor, 1858, 169.

Webber, Sheriff, captured Ishi, 386.

Weldin, Authur W., biographical sketch, 1261.

Wells and Chamber, account of early Oroville, 119; account of first Fourth of July at Ophir, 123; account of attack on Indians at M.H. Wells, 209-10; account of lynching at Bangor, 150-51; discuss County finances, 164-66; relate Mesilla Valley Indian trouble, 185-86; history of Butte County describes Bidwell Bar, 67; description of Long's Bar quoted, 68; describes operations of Banner Mine, 91; related Sunday episode at Long's Bar, 98; relate absence of theft at Long's Bar in 1850, 101.

Wells, Michael Henry, biographical sketch, 461.

Wells, M.H., 211; established store at Yankee Hill, 1858, 72; two versions of attack on Indians at his place, 209-11.

Wells, Thomas, 246; citizens' agent to see General Wright about Indian trouble, 214-15; county judge until 1861, 148; presided at champagne supper, 112, Justice of the Peace, 149.

Wells Fargo and Company, see Express companies.

West, M.B., mining claim sold, 272.

Westcott, Charles Everett, biographical sketch, 575.

Western Canal Company, subsidiary of Great Western Power Company, 347; water from Big Meadows, 352.

Western Pacific., 341-45; right of way through Oroville, 366; opening of, 367; last spike driven., 390; death of transit man, 379; attempt to murder an entire road gang, 384; fifteen-thousand dollar blast, 390.

Wheat, see also Agriculture; rise of industry, 239; decline in production, 304.

Wheeler, Columbus, 183; Justice of the Peace, 149.

Wheeler, William E., 389.

Wheelock, Harry, murdered, 282.

Wheelock, James, convicted of murder, 383.

Whipple, David, first Peavine postmaster, 104.

Whipple, Mrs. Sarah, account of her trip across the plains, 53; husband conducted hotel at Peavine, now Merrimac, 65-66; no other white women at Peavine, 96.

Whipple, Thomas F., biographical sketch, 808.

Whiskey, barrel worth four thousand dollars, 69.

Whiskey Bar, starting point of Big Bend Tunnel, 299.

Whitaker, Major Winfield, biographical sketch, 913.

White, Emmons, biographical sketch, 687.

White, George A., biographical sketch, 1227.

White, Henry W., biographical sketch, 1020.

White, James M., biographical sketch, 1030.

White, Mollie, poisoned wine case, 311-12.

White, Richard, biographical sketch, 675.

White, Thomas, shot, 278.

White Rock, gold strike in 1852 nearly depopulated Ophir, 68; gold discovery practically simultaneous with Ophir, 119; mining companies at above, 82.

White Rocks, Bidwell camps and prospects at, 42.

Whiteman, Gideon F., 272.

Whiting, Dwight, reported finding diamonds, 370.

Whiting, Fenton B., head of Whiting & Company, 106; father of E.C. and Dr. F.M. Whiting, 106.

Whiting and Company, see Express companies.

Whitlock, J.H., attempted to break trail in snow, 62.

Whitten, Herbert W., biographical sketch, 993.

Wick, Charles F., biographical sketch, 462.

Wickman; Earnest F., biographical sketch, 694.

Wickman, Henry E., biographical sketch, 1280.

Wiggins, Joseph, settled Dayton, 171.

Wightman, Earl, biographical sketch, 1246.

Wilbur, J.I., elected sheriff, 141.

Wilcox, worked arrastre on Gold Bank vein, 92.

Wildlife, grizzly bear, described by Bidwell, 36-37; in Sacramento Valley, 1843, 37; Beckwourth, account of, 47; in fifties, 121.

Wiley, A. P., co-founder of Clipper Mills, 70.

Will, Mrs. Hattie A., biographical sketch, 744.

Willard, Phineas, co-owner of Dogtown Nugget, 74.

Williams, Antone, murdered, 281.

Williams, Mr. and Mrs. Barney, children drowned, 308.

Williams, C.E., district judge, 148.

Williams, Daniel, biographical sketch, 1083.

Williams, David, biographical sketch, 1232.

Williams, Edward, murderer, 384.

Williams, Frederick Claudius, biographical sketch, 947.

Williams, Gardner, manager Spring Valley Mine, 268; developed diamond mine of South Africa for Rhodes, 268.

Williams, H.H., foreman, in Magalia and Pershbaker Mines, 300-01.

Williams, J.A., cashier Commercial Bank of Durham, 357.

Williams, James, land grant to, 179.

Williams, John, prospected with Bidwell, 42.

Williams, John Thomas, biographical sketch, 1096.

Williams, William W., biographical sketch, 561.

Williamson, E.T., biographical sketch, 988.

Willis, Asa John, biographical sketch, 1144.

Wilmot, George W., 147.

Wilson, Archie, accused by father, 320-21.

Wilson, E.C., biographical sketch, 624.

Wilson, H.P., in financing of Big Bend Tunnel, 351.

Wilson, Mrs. J.B., organizer of Olive Products Company, 355.

Wilson, John West, M.D., biographical sketch, 758.

Wilson, Lewis E., biographical sketch, 764.

Wilson, Perry, 282.

Wilson, S.B., elected sheriff, 339

Wilson, S.H., indicted in fee case: 364; Oroville marshal, 364.

Wilson, William C., D.D.S., biographical sketch, 1248.

Wilson, William M., biographical sketch, 770.

Winders, George, 206.

Wiser, Ver Lee, biographical sketch, 1311.

Wolohen, Charles G., biographical sketch, 1203.

Wolohen, Patrick, biographical sketch, 1202.

Women, meeting to condemn assaults on Indian women, 187; assaults on Indian women cause of trouble, 190; in early Chico, 241-42; in Chico anti-Chinese parade, 274; suffrage granted, 390; one at Spanishtown, 71; lack of women's influence in fifties, 96-97; project to import five thousand young ladies, 97; prostitution, 100; in Oroville, 1856, 120; dances of the fifties, 122; Hurdy-gurdy girls, 122-23; at Fourth of July celebration, 123; twenty-five ladies in Hamilton township, 168.

Wood, Austin E., biographical sketch, 1187.

Wood, Frank A., biographical sketch, 1035.

Wood, Jesse, County Superintendent of Schools, 115; statement on early church service, 116.

Wood, Mark H., biographical sketch, 1304.

Woodleaf, formerly Woodville, (q.v.) 244; V-flume to Honcut from, 283.

Woodman, Charles D., describes quartz mining, 90; account of Hurdy-gurdy girls, 122-23; account of Captain Yuba, 190-92; account of "beginners' luck," 79; kept Stringtown stove, 79; account of Wells Fargo Company and Adams Company race, 107-08.

Woodman, E.M., in Fuller Will case, 333; Oroville City Recorder, 365.

Woodman, Rev. J.M., 261.

Woodville, road to, 238; Forbestown-Woodville Road, 244-45; now Woodleaf, 244; V-flume to Honcut, 318.

Woodward, William Henry, biographical sketch, 786.

Wookey, Andrew J., biographical sketch, 1263.

Woolever, Mrs. Mata, biographical sketch, 1104.

Workman, Robert, Indian attack on house and family, 219-23.

World War, 1914-1918, Butte's participation in, 388-89.

Worthley, James, murdered, 282.

Wright; Bert, convicted on manslaughter, 383.

Wright, Chauncey, found Dogtown Nugget, 74.

Wright, H.C., arrested, 275.

Wright; S.S., Justice of the Peace, 149, 152

Wright, Thomas Shelton, 183; Justice of the Peace, 156; biographical sketch, 414.

Wyandotte, origin of name, 72; benefitted by Forbestown Ditch, 72; Mrs. E.A. Brooks, first teacher, 115; built first building for school purposes, 115; dance, December 31, 1853, 122; first fruit grown at Rutherford Home, 170; copper claims at, 263; attempted murder, 279; Daniel Murphy murdered, 282; first commercial olive planting, 304; Charles Bills robbed, 314; increases citrus planting, 326; served by South Feather Land & Water Company, 347; on stage road, 109.

Wyckoff, Charles Alexander, biographical sketch, 700; stage driver, stage robbed, 255.

Wyckoff, James Luther, biographical sketch, 619.

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Yankee Hill, successor to Rich Gulch, Spanishtown and Frenchtown, 71; origin of name, 71-72; supply for Frenchtown Canal and Mining Company, 72; store established by M.H. Wells, 72; versions of attack on Indians at, 1903, 209-10; survey for railroads in nineties, 330; murder at, 1903, 383.

Yard, E.J., 343; made reconnaissance of Feather River for Denver and Rio Grande, 322, 330, 341-42.

Yard, H. H., acquired claims in Feather River Canyon, 341-42; met Norris at Denver, 342; Swayne Lumber Company acquired lumber from, 359; value of assessment questioned, 371.

Yates, land grant to, 38, 172.

Yatestown, location of, 63, 67.

Y.M.C.A., first established, April, 1914, 387.

Yoakam, Jasper A., Jr., biographical sketch, 883.

Yocum, Henry F., convicted of manslaughter, 332.

Yocum, William Albert, 220; biographical sketch, 1129.

Young, A., 257.

Young, Sandy, 225.

Young, Constable Sol, shot, 281.

Yowl T., murdered, 283.

Yum King, murderer, 309.

Yutz, Ben, found diamonds, 370.

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Zambriskie, Judge, charges to Grand Jury on prostitution, 100; on carrying concealed weapons, 103.

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